The Corbyn Insurgency in Britain
Jon Trickett, Labour Party Member of Parliament, will be giving an "Insider's View From the First Member of Parliament to Nominate the New Leader of the Labour Party." The Lecture will take place on Friday, November 13, 2015 in the Dr. Paul and Natalie Strasser Legacy Room at 12:00 PM.
Campbell Conversations discusses Spike
Syracuse it’s got its own name—Spike.
Synthetic marijuana is a particularly severe problem here, and this week
on the Campbell Conversations host Grant Reeher talks with Steve Featherstone,
a journalist who has recently written a Syracuse-based piece on the drug for
the New York Times Magazine. They discuss what Spike is, the reasons for
its appeal among users, its grave dangers, and why it’s so hard for law
enforcement to combat and control it.
Hannah Visnosky awarded Remembrance Scholarship
Campbell Institute Work-Study student Hannah Visnosky has been awarded
one of Syracuse University's most competitive scholarship, the
Remembrance Scholarship. Hannah is a Junior at Syracuse majoring in Sport Management with a minor in Political Science. She recently Co-Chaired the 2014 Charity Sports Auction which raised over $40,000 for Make-A-Wish Central New York. Read More
Piston cited in Politico and Slate Press
In an interesting article about the OU racism incident, Jamelle Bouie
cites our own Spencer Piston’s work on racism among millennials. The
article in Slate.com refers to Piston's analysis of the 2012 American National Election Survey. Piston's millennial work is cited again by Sean McElwee, a research associate at Demos, in a Politico article on how "Millennials Are More Racist Than They Think."
Campbell Conversation with Onondaga County Sheriff's Candidates
This edition of the Campbell Conversations begins a series of
joint conversations this fall with candidates in contested races for elected
positions. This week the two candidates for Onondaga County Sheriff join host
Grant Reeher, in their first shared appearance. They discuss their background
and experience, the need to make changes at the sheriff's department, their
vision for greater cooperation with other law enforcement agencies in the
county, and just how vigorously they'll enforce the SAFE Act.
Campbell Conversation with John Katko
In one of his first extended public interviews, John Katko
talks with Grant Reeher on the Campbell Conversations. Katko is the former federal prosecutor
challenging incumbent Dan Maffei for the 24th Congressional district
seat this fall. In a wide-ranging discussion,
Katko sets out his case against Maffei’s re-election, and addresses whether
he’s a moderate or a conservative, how he thinks about entitlements and taxes,
Obamacare, and the level of dysfunction in the current Congress. He also discusses the role of money in the
Campbell Conversation with Lincoln Chafee, Part 1 of 2
In the first of two-part interview, Grant Reeher discusses the
current level of conflict and polarization between the two parties with Rhode
Island Governor Lincoln Chafee. Chafee is particularly well-suited as an
observer of this problem--when in the U.S. Senate he was known as a moderate
Campbell Conversation with Stephen Zunes
With the current focus on democratic protest movements in
the Middle East, it’s worth noting that since the 1970s, more than 70 nations
around the world have moved from dictatorship to democracy. Why the historical wave? This week on the Campbell Conversations,
University of San Francisco professor Stephen Zunes argues that it’s largely
due to strategic non-violent movements.
Zunes also specializes in the Israel-Palestine conflict, and there he
argues that the U.S. enables Israeli policies that give it little incentive to
compromise, making the peace process difficult.
He also asserts that anti-American extremism is generated not so much because
of our democratic values, but
when we stray from those values.
Campbell Conversation with Tim Kennedy
Like other newspapers, The
Syracuse Post Standard has struggled in recent years, and it has made
significant changes in the way it delivers the news and tries to interact with
the public. In this edition of the
Campbell Conversations, host Grant Reeher talks with Syracuse Media Group
President Tim Kennedy, the person now in charge of navigating its course. Find out why he sees a bright future of
opportunities for the company, despite the hits the paper has taken.
Campbell Conversation with Kevin Dunn
Sub-Saharan Africa is a big waterfront to cover—about 50
countries, with great diversity—but this edition of the Campbell Conversations
attempts to cover it. Host Grant Reeher
speaks with Hobart and William Smith political science professor Kevin Dunn, who
has written numerous books on the region.
They explore recent trends, common misperceptions, American foreign
policy, and the increasing influence of China.
Van Slyke Book Wins ASPA award
Dr. David Van Slyke's book “Complex Contracting:
Government Purchasing in the Wake of the U.S. Coast Guard’s Deepwater Program”
has won the American Society for Public Administration's Section on Public
Administration Research (SPAR) annual book award for public administration scholarship.
The SPAR Book Award Selection Committee said the book's “important research,
high-quality writing, will have a significant and lasting contribution to the
public administration literature, with strong impact on the practice of public
VanSlyke and Broadnax in the News
David Van Slyke, Bantle Chair in Business and Government, was recently profiled in the Maxwell Perspective
and Walter Broadnax, Distinguished Professor of Public Administration,
was featured in the Alumni Profile of Syracuse University's Manuscript
African American and Latino Alumni Magazine.
Campbell Conversation with Eleanor Powell
What effects do campaign contributions and independent
expenditures really have on the way that Congress works? On this episode of the Campbell
Conversations, Grant Reeher talks with Yale political scientist Eleanor Powell,
an expert on money and Congress. Powell
describes the complicated web of money’s influence, and considers what could
realistically be done to change the system.
Debate on the New York State Casino Referendum
The Campbell Public Affairs Institute at the Maxwell School of Syracuse University announces the next installment of The Campbell Debates, a debate series on timely issues of public importance. The Debate will be held Wednesday, October 16th at 7:00 PM in the Maxwell Auditorium.
Professor David Van Slyke and co-authors Matthew Potoski and Trevor Brown have a new book published — Complex Contracting: Government Purchasing in the Wake of the US Coast Guard's Deepwater Program. The book draws on core social science concepts to provide wide-ranging practical advice on how best to manage complex acquisitions. An in-depth analysis of the US Coast Guard's Deepwater program illustrates ways to respond to real-world contracting challenges. This engaging and accessible book has broad applicability and will appeal to policymakers, practitioners, scholars and students. » Click here to learn more
“NUNS ON THE BUS” LEADER SISTER SIMONE CAMPBELL TO DELIVER LECTURE AT MAXWELL SCHOOL On Friday, April 26 at 4 p.m. in the Maxwell Auditorium on the Syracuse University Campus, NETWORK Executive Director Sister Simone Campbell will deliver a lecture titled “Acting on Faith: Networking, Religion, and Progressive Politics,” in the Maxwell School’s State of Democracy lecture series. The lecture is sponsored by the Norman M. and Marsha Lee Berkman Endowed Fund. Reeher Quoted in a Bloomberg article about Republican Governors and Opposition Over Medicaid
Reeher stated that the governors have to support Medicaid expansion or they will be losing out on important money for their states. Governors have the job of doing what is best for their state, regardless of political affiliation. Reeher mentioned that legislators can stick to their political convictions for a longer period than governors can, which leads to this stalemate.
Thompson discusses the role of nuns and Catholicism in America
Sr. Mary Bendyna, RSM, director of Institutional Research and Accreditation at Aquinas College, Nashville, Tennessee; Sr. Mary Ann Hinsdale, IHM, associate professor of theology at Boston College; and Margaret Susan Thompson, professor of history at Syracuse University, discuss the role of nuns and Catholicism in America, providing historical and contemporary perspectives. The program is introduced by Erik Owens, associate director of the Boisi Center for Religion and American Public Life.
Campbell Debate on Hydrofracking
The proposition to be argued in the next Campbell Debate is “This Assembly Believes Hydrofracking Does More Harm Than Good.” The Debate is being held in the Maxwell Auditorium on Friday, November 30, from 7:00 to 8:30 p.m.
Given the intense attention that this issue has generated, it needs little introduction, and indeed, it has been debated before. But in sponsoring this debate, the Campbell Institute is hoping to add some additional light to the considerable heat the issue has produced thus far. Speaking in favor of the proposition are Paul Gallay, President, Hudson Riverkeeper, and Robert Howarth, the David R. Atkinson Professor of Ecology and Environmental Biology at Cornell University. Speaking against the proposition are Edward Hinchey, Principal Consultant, ERM Group, and Tim Whitesell, Supervisor, Town of Binghamton, and President, New York Association of Towns.
Kim Organizes International Workshop on Public Trust
Professor Soonhee Kim has organized an International Workshop on Public Trust in Public Administration to be held on Dec 11-12, 2012, in Seoul, South Korea. Twenty scholars from ten countries are invited to the workshop to exchange recent research findings and stimulate global research collaboration on public trust in government and citizen attitudes.
Conversation with Matt Bennett, Third Way
After the barrage of negative campaign ads, nightly robo calls, and daily mailers, most Central New Yorkers are probably thinking, Whew! Glad that’s over. But the time after “the day after” has just begun. On this edition of the Campbell Conversations, Matt Bennett, the Senior Vice President and co-founder of Third Way, a centrist think tank in Washington DC, dissects what happened last Tuesday, and more importantly, considers what now?
Conversation with 48th State Senate Candidates
Except for a brief stint with Darrel Aubertine, the 48th State Senate district has been a Republican stronghold. Amy Tresidder is trying to upset that pattern this fall, and in this week’s edition of the Campbell Conversations Grant Reeher engages both Tresidder and the incumbent Senator Patty Ritchie in a debate-style conversation. The candidates agree about their overall fiscal conservatism, but they clash over home-rule on local tax authority, whether Albany has actually provided mandate relief, and more generally whether state government is significantly more functional now than it was two years ago.
Kim coauthors an article on online Citizen Participation
A new article coauthored by Professor Kim in the Department of Public Administration and International Affairs and Maxwell Alum, Jooho Lee, “E-Participation, Transparency, and Trust in Local Government,” has been published in Public Administration Review.
Based on Citizen E-Participation data in Seoul Government in South Korea, the article examines the relationship between electronic participation (e-participation) and trust in local government.
Campbell Conversation with Michael Kranish
More than ever in this presidential election, the question is being asked -- Who is the Real Romney? With me this week on the Campbell Conversations is Michael Kranish, Deputy Washington Bureau Chief for the Boston Globe and co-author of the book with precisely that title -- The Real Romney. Kranish's book is widely considered to be the definitive biography of the Republican nominee. In an interview that took place just prior to Romney's impolitic comments about the 47 percent of Americans who do not pay federal income taxes, we talk about the real Romney and what he might actually bring to the White House.
Among the topics we explore are the nature of the business enterprises he engaged in at Bain Capital, his leadership style there and as a politician, his political career and his time as governor of Massachusetts, his family background, the role of his faith, and why he's not releasing his tax returns. Just as in his book, Kranish is very careful not to editorialize, but there is a lot of rich material here which should help to inform a voter's sense of the nominee as a person and as a possible president.
Conversation with Olympic Runner Lopez Lomong
“The land next to heaven.” That’s the way Lopez Lomong describes his love for and thanks to this country for the opportunities it has afforded him. On the next edition of the Campbell Conversations, the former Lost Boy of Sudan, now an Olympic runner and the author of Running for my Life, talks about his inspiring journey and the challenges still facing the people in South Sudan.
Mulroy Recieves Dissertation Award and Publishes New Article
Quinn Mulroy has been selected as the winner of the American Political Science Association's 2012 Leonard D. White Best Dissertation Award for her dissertation, "Public Regulation Through Private Litigation: The Regulatory Power of Private Lawsuits and the American Bureaucracy.”
In addition, Mulroy has a new article published in the Journal of Politics with Ira Katznelson: “Was the South Pivotal? Situated Partisanship and Policy Coalitions During the New Deal and Fair Deal.”
Conversation with Democratic Candidate Al Stirpe
There's more than one election rematch in Syracuse this fall. Democrat Al Stirpe is trying to recapture the State Assembly seat he lost to Republican Don Miller in 2010. Miller, a staunch conservative, won an upset victory over Stirpe despite being outspent by a large margin. In this edition of the Campbell Conversations, Al Stirpe explains why he thinks being an effective legislator requires more compromise and nuance than he sees in Miller, and defends the criticisms he has made about Miller's constituency service. He also discusses the state's role in economic development and education, the issue of hydrofracking, and the financial challenges facing Syracuse.
Broadnax named to Executive Nurse Fellows National Advisory Committee
Walter D. Broadnax is named to the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Executive Nurse Fellows National Advisory Committee. The Executive Nurse Fellows Program is a three-year advanced leadership program for nurses who aspire to lead and shape health care locally and nationally. Fellows strengthen their leadership capacity and improve their abilities to lead teams and organizations in improving health and health care. This is a national program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, administered by the Center for Creative Leadership and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Nursing. The new National Program Office is located at the Center for Creative Leadership (CCL®) in Greensboro, NC.
You can view the current ENF NAC’s bios and photos at: http://www.executivenursefellows.org/nac.php
Social Media in the Public Sector
The National Association of Schools of Public Affairs & Administration (NASPAA) just published a special issue of the Journal of Public Affairs Education titled “Social and technological innovations in teaching public affairs“. The special issue was edited by Thomas Bryer and Angie Eikenberry.
“The Public Manager 2.0: Preparing the social media generation for the networked workplace“ was written by Maxwell's Ines Mergel. In the article, she explains her teaching philosophy for a new course she designed on the use of social media applications in the public sector.
Van Slyke works with World Bank and Russian government on procurement reform legislation
David Van Slyke was one of two American academics invited to work with the World Bank and the Russian government on procurement reform legislation from May 29 to June 4. Van Slyke worked closely with staff from the Bank and officials from the Chamber of Accounts, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Economic Development, and the Federal Anti-Monopoly Service. David gave three official presentations on different dimensions of government contracting and public-private partnerships and worked with ministry representatives on legislation going before the Duma.
Kim's Public Sector Human Resource Management Volume Released
Professor Soonhee Kim in the department of Public Administration and International Affairs co-edited the recently released book, Public Sector Human Resource Management. The new four-volume set published by the SAGE Publications in UK provides original articles and chapters that address the evolution, current state and potential future of HRM in public management and public policy. The collections are broadly comparative in perspective and include consideration of increasing globalization and inter-dependency among nations and their policies.
Senator Bill Bradley to give the Inaugural Lecture in the Tanner Lecture Series on Ethics, Citizenship, and Public Responsibility
Former senator, presidential candidate, NBA Hall of Famer, and author Bill Bradley will be the inaugural speaker for an upcoming lecture series at the Maxwell School of Syracuse University. The Tanner Lecture Series on Ethics, Citizenship, and Public Responsibility launches on Tuesday, April 10, with Bradley, who represented New Jersey in the U.S. Senate from 1979 to 1997. In 2000, Bradley pursued the Democratic nomination for U.S. President.
The lecture, which is free and open to the public, will be held in Maxwell Auditorium on the SU campus, from 6 - 7:15 p.m., followed by a reception in the Auditorium foyer. Parking is available in Irving Garage for a $5 fee when attendees mention the event at the entrance.
To view the lecture http://www.maxwell.syr.edu/live
Rubinstein in Anthropology Today
Law prohibiting material support threatens academic freedom, human rights. Robert A. Rubinstein, professor of anthropology and international relations, recently co-authored the article “‘Material Support’ US anti-terrorism law threatens human rights and academic freedom,” which was published in Anthropology Today, in February 2012. The federal law prohibiting the ‘provision of material support or resources’ to terrorist groups does not require proof that a defendant actually intended to support terrorism and is vague about what counts as material support.
Broadnax to Give Richardson Lecture
Walter Broadnax will deliver the Elliot Richardson Lecture at this years ASPA conference in March 2012. The Lecture honors the ideals of public service that Richardson embodied. Broadnax will be discussing how leaders are confronted with ethical and moral challenges while navigating their organizations through change.
Influence of Foreign Voices on U.S. Public Opinion
Danny Hayes and Matt Guardino demonstrate that critical statements by leaders of foreign nations and officials from international organizations who appeared in the U.S. mainstream media before the invasion of Iraq caused many Democrats and independents to express opposition to the war. Our study, which relies on an analysis of more than 1,400 TV news stories and nine public opinion surveys including more than 5,700 respondents, offers the first empirical evidence that foreign elite voices in the news can shape American attitudes. Read the article here.
Campbell Conversation with Dan Grossman
This week Grant is talking with Dan Grossman, a freelance environmental journalist who has frequently appeared on NPR and the BBC, and has written for the New York Times, Rolling Stone, and Scientific American. He’s won a host of prestigious awards and been funded by many highly respected organizations—among them the Peabody award, the National Science Foundation, and the Fund for Investigative Journalism. In his conversation he puzzles over the enduring controversy surrounding global warming, despite the clear scientific consensus on it, and he describes some of the problems that scientists have in communicating their findings to the public. Along the way he relates some of the more interesting people he’s encountered in his adventures—the story about using sawdust to try to save glacier ice particularly interesting.
Van Slyke Researching Nonprofit Startup Organizations
David Van Slyke, The Maxwell School and Jesse Lecy, Georgia State University and SU Alum, have received funding from the Kresge Foundation for a second wave of survey research on nonprofit startup organizations. Van Slyke and Lecy are conducting research that is specifically interested in events that influence growth and survival during the early years of a nonprofit and during the process of incorporation and understanding which factors lead to organizational vulnerability and to organizational growth during the first three years of nonprofit operations.
Kim Appointed Co-Chair of Study Group on Trust and Public Attitudes
Professor Soonhee Kim of the Department of Public Administration and International Affairs has been appointed as co-chair of a new Study Group on Trust and Public Attitudes organized in the International Institute of Administrative Sciences (IIAS). The IIAS located in Brussels is a worldwide platform providing a space for exchanges that promote knowledge and practices to improve the organization and operation of Public Administration since 1930. The Study Group will conduct comparative research on public trust in government and citizenship in governance through organizing conferences and publishing books and articles related to the themes. She will work with the other co-chairs of Steven Van De Walle, Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands and Masao Kikuchi, Meiji University, Japan for the next three years.
Elisabeth Lasch-Quinn awarded Fulbright Fellowship
Elisabeth Lasch-Quinn was awarded a Fulbright Fellowship in U.S. Intellectual History at the University of Rome III in Rome, Italy, for the Spring 2012 semester. She will teach and advise graduate students and conduct research in Roman archives on her work in progress on the contemporary self in historical and philosophical perspective. Her work is informed by key works from antiquity to the present, including those of third-century Greek philosopher Plotinus, the focus of her research in Rome, nineteenth-century Danish theologian Søren Kierkegaard, and twentieth-century classical sociologist Philip Rieff.
Kim Selected as Associate Editor of Public Administration Reveiw
Professor Soonhee Kim in the Department of Public Administration and International Affairs has been selected as an Associate Editor of International Features of Public Administration Review (PAR). The PAR has been the premier journal in the field of public administration research, theory, and practice for more than 60 years and it has 4000 institutional subscribers around the world.
Panel Discussion on Wartime Contracting
A panel on wartime contracting will be hosted, with the support of the Department of Public Administration and International Affairs and the Campbell Institute at the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs at Syracuse University, on Wednesday, April 13th from 8:30 – 11:15 am in Eggers 018 and available online at http://www.maxwell.syr.edu/live
Kim publishes new article on the Role of Social Networks
Soonhee Kim, associate professor of public administration, co-authored a new article published in the American Review of Public Administration. The article, entitled “Exploring the Role of Social Networks in Affective Organizational Commitment: Network Centrality, Strength of Ties, and Structural Holes,” explores the social network configurations that lead to affective organizational commitment.
CNYSpeaks Announces Civility Forum
February 18, 2011: Making Public Meetings Work for the Public: A forum on finding ways to make public hearings, forums and meetings more civil, constructive and productive.
The President’s Debt Commission Report
As the coach and political philosopher George Allen once said, “the future is now.” President Obama’s debt commission has raised important and urgent questions about the nation’s financial outlook. Please check out the report at http://www.fiscalcommission.gov/ and talk about it with your
family, friends, and neighbors.
Van Slyke elected Fellow
Maxwell School public administration professor David Van Slyke have been elected as a fellow of the National Academy of Public Administration (NAPA). He joins seven other Maxwell professors who have already received this distinction. New fellows will be introduced to the Academy during the 2010 Fall Meeting in November at the NAPA offices in Washington, D.C. Further information can be found at http://www.napawash.org/.
POTW: Election night at WRVO
It’s the biggest night of the year for virtually every newsroom in the country: Election Night. And WRVO is no exception. The station had “all hands on deck” to report the results, along with a few special guests providing analysis. More>>
State of Democracy Lecture
Anne Kornblut, White House correspondent for The Washington Post and author of Notes from the Cracked Ceiling, spoke as part of the State of Democracy Lecture Series on October 22 in the Maxwell Auditorium. The event is now available for viewing.
Campbell Conversations Features 48th District Debate
Campbell Conversations special hour-long edition features a debate-style conversation with the two candidates for the 48th State Senate district. This is one of the key races that will determine whether the state senate turns over to Republicans after November.
Rubinstein Awarded Textor Prize
The American Anthropological Association has awarded Robert Rubinstein The Robert B. Textor and Family Prize for Excellence in Anticipatory Anthropology. The announcement, which is attached, says in part that the prize was awarded in honor of Robert's “advocacy for the development of the anthropology of peace, security and human rights.”
CNYSpeaks Hosts OnCenter Arts Forum
CNYSpeaks, a civic engagement initiative co-directed by Campbell Institute Director Grant Reeher and Campbell Associate Tina Nabatchi, hosted a citizen forum on Sept. 26 that explored strategies for building audience for arts, culture and entertainment organizations in Onondaga County.
Kim publishes paper on Public Trust
Soonhee Kim, associate professor of public administration, has published the paper “Public Trust in Government in Japan and South Korea: Does the Rise of Critical Citizens Matter?” in the Sep/Oct 2010 issue of Public Administration Review (PAR), Volume 70, Number 5, pages 801-810.
Institute has new radio show: Campbell Conversations
Campbell Conversations is an interview based public affairs that leads WRVO’s “Weekly Edition” segment. The show is hosted by Grant Reeher, Director of the Campbell Public Affairs Institute at Syracuse University’s Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs.
Management Strategy for Local Governments
Soonhee Kim has a new book Management Strategy for Local Governments to Strengthen Transparency in Local Governance published by the United Nations Project Office on Governance.
Kim honored with Henderson Award
Soonhee Kim is this year’s recipient of the Julia B. Henderson Award. This Award given by ASPA’s Section on Women in Public Administration honors a woman who has demonstrated her commitment to international public administration in particular or to international public service in general by a lifetime of public service, to careers in international public administration and public service.
Polarization in Politics
Danny Hayes has a new paper coming out in the January issue of American Politics Research. The paper, coauthored with Mathieu Turgeon, examines how candidate polarization—the growing ideological divide between Republican and Democratic politicians—affects the way voters process information and make their choices during campaigns. Our findings suggest that increasing elite polarization may make citizens more resolute in their preferences and more resistant to new information that challenges their existing beliefs.
Work cited by the Office of Management and Budget
The White House’s Office of Management and Budget recently issued a policy memorandum on how federal agencies are to undertake human resource planning for their contracting and acquisition workforce. The plan cites a paper co-written by David M. Van Slyke of The Maxwell School of Syracuse University, Trevor Brown, associate director for Academic Affairs and Research at the Glenn School and Matthew Potoski of Iowa State University. The paper Managing Public Service Contracts: Aligning Values, Institutions, and Markets was published in 2006. For memorandum.
Campbell Names New Director
Dean Mitchel Wallerstein announced today that Professor Grant Reeher has been named the new director of the Maxwell School’s Alan K. Campbell Public Affairs Institute.
Hayes New Paper Published
Danny Hayes has a new paper published in the American Journal of Political Science. The article shows that voters who are redistricted into new congressional districts are significantly less likely to vote in the subsequent U.S. House election.
Kim Appears as Invited Speaker
Soonhee Kim has been invited to be a speaker at the International Conference on “Creativity, the Power to Change the World” held in Seoul, South Korea on August 12, 2009.
Hayes Paper Published
Danny Hayes has a new article published in Political Behavior. The paper examines the conventional wisdom that television has “personalized” voting behavior in American presidential elections by encouraging citizens to cast ballots on the basis of candidate image and personality.
Hayes New Article Published
Danny Hayes has a new article, "Dixie's Kingmakers: Stability and Change in Southern Presidential Primary Electorates," coming out in the summer issue of Presidential Studies Quarterly.
Kim Authors New Study
Soonhee Kim, associate professor of public administration, authors a new study on Local Government Capacity and Transparency in Developing Countries in the Asian region.
Keck Receives Award
Thomas Keck has received the Houghton Mifflin Award from the Law and Courts Section of the American Political Science Association, in recognition of the best journal article on law and courts published by a political scientist in 2007.