Spring 2019 Undergraduate History Course Descriptions

HST 102 America Since 1865

This semester offers a broad look at the history of the United States in the 150 years from the end of the Civil War through the first decade of the 21st Century. Throughout the course, we will engage with the social, political, and cultural changes, ideas, and events that have profoundly shaped modern American society.

Key questions include: How have we defined being American? How has the nation’s relationship with the world changed?  How have the rights of citizens evolved over time? How have various groups in American society articulated their claims to citizenship and national belonging? What factors have affected the development of American political leadership?

Concentration: U.S. / Period: Modern

HST 112 Napoleon to the Present

This course examines the major developments in European history since the late 18th century, including the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Era, the Industrial Revolution, imperialism, the First World War, the Bolshevik Revolution, the Fascist and Nazi seizures of power, the Second World War, the Holocaust, the Cold War, and European Unification. The thematic focus of this course is the relationship between the individual and the state. How does this relationship change over time – what makes it “modern”? To address this question, we will examine ideologies (liberalism, conservatism, socialism, nationalism, fascism), the birth of mass society, poverty, violence, women’s rights, and racism. There are two lectures and one discussion section per week. Discussions emphasize primary sources and historical debates. Grades are based on in-class exams, papers, and discussion.

Concentration: Europe / Period: Modern

HST 122 Global History: 1750 – Present

This course introduces students to global history beginning in 1750 by focusing on social, economic, political, intellectual and religious developments in major regions of the world: Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and the Americas. Beginning with the Mughal Empire in India, the Ottomans, and the empires of the New World, it will trace the growing interaction of these areas with Europe through colonialism and trade. From the age of revolutions to the age of empires and the age of nation-states, this course studies the relevance of the early modern world for understanding today’s global patterns and economic inter-dependency. We will explore twentieth-century developments including the spread of Marxism, secular nationalism, and decolonization. The course ends by looking at current issues in world history, including the environment, global capitalism, and religious revivalism. Topics will be covered thematically in general chronological order. Lectures will be supplemented by maps, visual materials, music, documentaries and films. All students are required to attend lectures and one discussion section a week. Students need not have taken HST 121 Global History to enroll.

Concentration: Global / Period: Modern

HST 145 Intro to Historical Archaeology

The inter-disciplinary study of the past 500 years using archaeological documentary, cartographic, pictorial, and oral historical sources. Historical archaeology as a mechanism to critique perceptions of the past. Firsthand record of ethnic groups and cultural settings not recorded in writing.

Concentration: U.S. or Global / Period: Pre-modernHST 200 European Witch Hunts

This course is an introduction to witchcraft and witch hunts in early modern Europe and its colonies from the Spanish Inquisition to the trials in Salem. Students will explore elite and popular perceptions of witches and the various legal systems employed by European Christians to try and execute those accused of malevolent witchcraft. Class discussions will investigate the social, gendered, spatial, and political dimensions of persecution, and students will examine local circumstances in a series of case studies. Topics to be covered include: demonology, magic, the devil, warlocks, possession, the image of the witch, standards of evidence, and Christian theology.

HST 209 Middle East in the 20th Century

Interested in the Middle East but not sure where to begin? This course is the perfect introduction to understanding a fascinating and dynamic part of the world today. It covers major aspects of Middle East history from the twentieth century to the present, including the countries from Turkey and Iran in the east, to Palestine, Israel, Syria and the Arabian Peninsula, and from Egypt across northern Africa to Morocco in the west. Lectures combine political basics with a insights on social and cultural life, and women’s rights. Readings blend specific details of political and economy change in each country while indicating broader regional trends, from as European imperialism, the impact of the two world wars, to revolutionary aspirations and radical social movement. These are supplemented by primary sources that incorporate the words, perspectives, and self-representations of individuals across the Middle East. Additional topics include intellectual life, constitutionalism and democracy, anti-colonial nationalism, feminism and women’s movements, the radical left, political Islam, and contemporary debates.

There are no prerequisites for this class.

This class meets twice a week, there is no discussion section.

HST 211 Medieval and Renaissance Europe

This introductory survey traces Europe’s transformation during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, from roughly 300 CE to roughly 1500 CE. It begins as the Roman Empire slowly gave way to new societies in both East and West, and then follows the fortunes of these societies over more than 1000 years. It explores the religious, political, economic, social, cultural, intellectual, and artistic aspects of these societies and how they changed over time. Readings will include both primary sources (those written at the time) and secondary sources (by modern scholars). Students will learn to analyze these sources in order to find out what happened in this period, how people understood events, and how historians use evidence to explain the past. Requirements include reading and participation, midterm and final exams, and two papers.

Concentration: Europe / Period: Pre-modern

HST 214 Modern Africa: 1800’s-Present

Are you curious about African History? Do you want to understand the causes and consequences of colonialism? Do you wonder about the role of African states in the Cold War? Do you want to go beyond stereotyped images of Africans presented in movies and TV shows? This course will answer those questions and more through surveying the history and transformations of the African continent over the last two hundred years. Some of the themes and topics this course will examine include: the role of slaver in the nineteenth century Africa, precolonial social, economic, and demographic transformations, the effects of colonization on African societies, African anti-imperialism and nationalism, decolonization, Africa and the Cold War, postcolonial successes and challenges, the state of Africa in the twenty-first century and digital age.

Crosslisted with: AAS 214
A survey of modern African history since 1800. Themes include nineteenth-century western images of Africa, pre-colonial changes, Western Imperialism, African anti-imperialism, colonial economic and social transformation, nationalism, cold war, decolonization, post colonial developments and changes.

HST 300 Science and Society

This course surveys the history of science and technology from the ancient world to the present.

It focuses on how scientific investigation and technologies are shaped by society, as well as how discoveries and innovations reciprocally shape societies.  In studying major scientific developments and technological achievements in civilizations past and present, from the Antikythera device to the Enigma machine and the cell phone, we will investigate how the history of science and technology has been written into economic, political, and social narratives.  We will use evidence from archaeology, historical narratives, journalism and science fiction to explore how science and technology, then and now, are not isolated from society; non-specialists have a stake in which scientific projects are promoted (and funded) and which technologies receive the lion’s share of consumer purchases.  An historical perspective on science and technology informs our understanding of the modern embrace of innovation and the ways that the products of such innovations infuse our cultural practices and daily life. 

HST 300 Herodotus and the Persian Wars

A study of Herodotus, the father of history, the first anthropologist, the first ethnographer…and the father of lies.  Herodotus was the product of ancient Greece, which defined itself in cultural terms in opposition to non-Greeks, or ‘barbarians.’  This cultural framework provides the context from which to consider Herodotus’ narrative of the Persian Invasions of Greece.

HST 300 Slavery & Freedom in the Americas

During the era of the transatlantic slave trade, more than 350,000 Africans disembarked as slaves in what is now the United States. While significant, these women, children, and men were only part of the more than 12.5 million people who were forcibly trafficked from Africa to the Americas during the same period, and of the countless other people forced into unfree labor. How did the experiences of enslaved men and women in the colonial and early republican United States compare with those of people in other parts of the Atlantic World? How might learning about and comparing their experiences shape our understanding of the meanings of race and national belonging.

Rather than focusing on the slave regimes of individual empires or nations, this course emphasizes the centrality of slavery to the creation of a shared Atlantic World by focusing on the diverse experiences of enslaved people and their descendants in the Americas (North, Central, and South America and the Caribbean), while also exploring the practice of slavery in Africa and Europe. Adopting a broad geographic and temporal perspective allows us to examine evolving relationships between labor, gender, and race, and to consider how and why these relationships have been remembered or forgotten in imperial and national histories. Although the majority of this course focuses on the Americas during the colonial and early-independence eras, consideration will also be given to how the acknowledgement, denial, or ignoring of histories of racial slavery shape the present day.

HST 300 History of Capitalism in the U.S

This course considers the history of capitalism in the United States, exploring the nation from its origins as part of the British empire to its emergence as the world’s greatest financial power.  In it, students will explore how canals, turnpikes, and railroads transformed the nation’s transportation network.  They will discuss the rise of markets in cities and towns.  Students will explore the emergence of plantation slavery, making the South the center of a global market in cotton. The course discusses how technology reshaped manufacturing.  They will consider the development of an American working class and their protests against their treatment.  Students will learn about the rise of the modern corporation, banking, and the stock market.  And the class will discuss a range of additional themes, including law, war, regulation, consumerism, de-industrialization, and white-collar work.

Concentration: US

HST 300 History of Self

In the age of advertising, social media, and the selfie, it is easy to associate the self with external image alone. Yet, we can find richer ways of thinking about the self in our own times and long before, with an emphasis on very different factors. In this course, we will examine a selection of depictions of the ancient and modern self, in sources ranging from philosophical and autobiographical to aesthetic and visual. Beginning with ancient Greco-Roman philosophy and early Christian thought, reading authors such as Plato, Marcus Aurelius, and Augustine, we will compare and contrast early notions of the self with those in later times, reading modern authors such as Hannah Arendt on “the life of the mind” and working with visual materials, from painting to film. We will explore questions such as the role of emotion and reason in our lives, the meaning of a good life, and varied approaches to the art of living, such as Stoic, Epicurean, Cynical, and Platonic.

HST 300 1940: Turning Point of the 20th Century

In January 1940, London and Paris were the two centers of the international political, economic, and social order, just as they had been for the past 200 years. By December, that order had been irrevocably smashed. France was under German occupation and Britain under siege. Hitler’s Third Reich controlled most of the European continent. The major non-European states – the United States, the USSR, and Japan – had to hurriedly respond to this drastic alteration in global power. After 1940, the world would never be the same again.

This course examines that watershed year in international history, looking at why events happened as they did and how individual leaders, states, and societies reacted to the revolution unfurling around them.

Readings will cover the drama of 1940 from (among others) British, French, German, Italian, American, Japanese, Indian, and Chinese perspectives.

HST 300 America and the Middle East

This course will examine the political, economic, military, and cultural interactions that shaped this historical relationship between the United States and the Middle East from the eighteenth century to the present. It will explore several major topics, including the origins and influence of American Orientalism, immigration and activism, Petropolitics, the United States and the Arab-Israeli conflict, the Cold War in the Middle East, the origins and expansion of Political Islam, and the influence of popular culture.

The course grade will be based on papers, exams, and class participation and attendance.

HST 301 Practicum

What is History? How do scholars “do” history? This seminar introduces history majors to the methods and goals of historical study, and to the skills needed to conduct independent historical research. The first part of the course will be spent discussing what exactly history is and has been. We will then move on to discussing the kinds of history that have developed across the century in the American Historical profession. Finally, students will spend a large portion of the course familiarizing themselves with the analytical and practical skills needed to develop their own research projects.

HST 302 Early America

This course begins on the eve of European arrival in North America and ends on the eve of the American Revolution in 1776. Adopting a broad geographic perspective, we will explore the overlapping political, social, and cultural worlds of Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans in North, South, and Central America and the Caribbean. We will examine changing relations between slaves and slave owners; between Indians and colonists; between men and women; between religious leaders and their followers; between political leaders and their constituents. Readings are a mix of primary and secondary sources.

Concentration: US /Period: Pre-Modern

HST 304 The Age of Jefferson and Jackson

This course examines the period between 1787 and 1848 as a distinctive era in United States history.  From the adoption of the Federal constitution to the Mexican war and the Gold Rush, the early American republic offers a vivid case study in historical irony: how a revolutionary republic inched towards nationalism and imperialism; how declared principles of liberty and equality could coexist with (and occasionally create new modes of) racial, gendered, and economic oppression and inequality; how a people who praised the virtues of rural life became progressively urban and industrial.  Readings and lectures will juxtapose the traditional scholarly focus on statecraft, presidential politics, and diplomacy with more recent research in social, cultural, and economic history.

Concentration: US

HST 316 Europe Since 1945

In 1945, the hopes and ideals of classical liberalism and even the enlightened spirit of Europe itself seemed to have been destroyed by the European descent into bloody cataclysm. The shattered continent found itself the chessboard of an emerging American and Soviet conflict—a conflict that would unmistakably shape European history for the next half century. While war in Europe went cold, proxy wars and wars of decolonization chipped away at centuries of imperial dominance. Refugees, migrants, and laborers flooded into Europe bringing with them new challenges that tested the limits of tolerance. Within this commotion Europeans simultaneously recast historic ideals, struggled for social justice, and sought to stabilize the international political order. By the turn of the 21st century, unprecedented economic growth across the continent and the emergence of the EU announced that Europe had risen from the ashes anew. But today, Russian expansionism in the east, massive waves of African and Middle Eastern refugees, the rapid rise of right-wing populism, and the British secession from the EU undermine stability and echo catastrophes of the past.

This class will have four main themes. The first is to consider this period of history as postwar history, an era unmistakably shaped by legacies, memories, and narratives of the Second World War. Second, this period is Cold War history, a story of dividing Europe into conflicting political and cultural spheres. Third, Europeans in this era did a great deal of work to redefine themselves and we will focus on efforts of reinvention, political purges, conflicts with the past, social mobilizations, and political cooperations both before and after 1989. Finally, European history since 1945 has been global history, driven by advanced globalization, decolonization, and migration.

HST/MES 317 Arab Revolutions

From revolutions in Tunisia and Egypt, to mass protests in Syria, Bahrain, and Yemen, to the overthrow of the regime in Libya, this course offers an historical introduction to the Arab Revolutions of 2011. Was it a Facebook revolution? Who was Tweeting in Tahrir? What role did women play? And where exactly is Tunisia?

Beginning with extensive case studies of Egypt, Libya, and Tunisia since the 1950s followed by shorter case studies of Bahrain, Syria and Yemen, this course explores the social, economic, and political histories of each country to understand the contexts and reasons for the revolutions. Topics include postcolonial politics, anti-imperialism, socialism and socialist development, state feminism, neoliberalism and economic restructuring. Readings, lectures, and discussions consider the impact of broader transformations on rural communities, women, and the poor. Turning to the 2011 protests, we will discuss topics such as the demographic and social bases of these movements, their mobilization and communication through the internet, the dynamics of armed revolt, and the complexities of foreign intervention.

Concentration: Global / Period: Modern

HST 321 Modern China

This course will survey the history of China from the seventeenth century to the present. Our focus will be on revolution and reform: the primary means through which Chinese people responded to the challenges of a new world, and, most particularly, to Western encroachment and invasion. Topics to be considered in depth include:  politics and society under the Qing dynasty (1644-1911); the end of the dynastic system and the continuing quest for a viable political system; reform of Chinese culture through revolution; the challenge of changing old attitudes about gender roles; conflicting visions for the new nation; the critique of communism by dissident Chinese; the persistence and resurgence of traditional ways, and the renewed interest in Maoism during the 2000’s. Assigned readings include a slim textbook to provide chronology and a variety of historical materials including memoirs, fiction and poetry.

Concentration: Global / Period: Modern

HST/SAS 329 Making of Modern India

This course surveys the history of modern South Asia from the beginnings of British colonial rule in the eighteenth century to the formation of independent India and Pakistan in the mid-twentieth century.

The course has two broad themes. First, we will explore how colonial rule transformed Indian society, its political forms, culture, and economy. Second, we will study the emergence of the Indian nationalist movement, the challenges it faced, and the fissures within society – along lines of class, caste, and religion – that underlay the formation of modern India. We will also examine how the politics of nationalism impacted the histories of postcolonial India and Pakistan. Students will be exposed to a range of primary sources including fiction, memoirs, maps, documentaries, and films.

Concentration: Global

HST/AAS 333African American History after the 19th Century

This course will examine the complex and varied African American experiences from Reconstruction to the present period. The course’s goal is twofold: first, to introduce you to the history and culture of African Americans; and second, to determine the manner in which these experiences relate to the contemporary world. Specifically, this course emphasizes Black people and their quest for freedom through a thorough examination of: Reconstruction; Jim Crow; race, class, and gender; political thought; Great Migration; Black West; culture and representation; Black Freedom Movement; and current affairs.

Concentration: US/Period: Modern

HST/WGS 349 Women in American History since the Civil War

Focusing on the past 150 years, this course is intended to provide an overview of women’s experiences in America from the Civil War to the present. While it is not a course on the history of feminism, it will be taught from a feminist perspective.  What does that mean?  Stated simply, in this class, women will be considered as subjects—as actors who themselves “make history”, and not simply as passive objects of the actions of others. Moreover, it assumes the full personhood of women, the reality of discrimination against women, and the intrinsic significance of women’s experience. Beyond that, it is not expected that students in the course will share the professor’s point of view on all matters (indeed, with any luck, the class will contain a healthy diversity of backgrounds and perspectives).

It should be understood from the outset that “American women’s history” is not monolithic. Therefore, we will pay considerable attention to the diversity among women and their experiences over time.  This diversity adds to the complexity of what we will be studying—but it also will add to the richness of understanding that I hope you will take away from this class. Student participation is not only welcome, but essential!

Concentration: U.S. / Period: Modern

HST 353 History of Ancient Rome

A comprehensive survey of ancient Roman political, economic, social and cultural history based on the interpretation of primary sources, both literary and archaeological, from the foundation of the city through the dissolution of the Empire in the west. Special focus is given to important topics and themes in Roman history, including Roman foundation legends, the interrelationship of Roman statecraft and Roman religion, Roman aristocratic ethical values and imperialism, the Roman reaction to Greek culture and literature, the imperial cult of the Roman emperor, the position of women in Roman society, the Roman institution of slavery, the origins and early growth of Christianity, the third century CE military and economic crises, and modern ideas on Rome's transformation into medieval Europe. Short paper, mid-term and final examinations.

Concentration: Europe / Period: Pre-modern

HST 355 The Italian Renaissance

This course examines the civilization that developed in the states of northern and central Italy between 1300 and 1520 and the concept of the Renaissance itself. The course is divided into three parts. The first part examines Renaissance Italy as the birthplace of modern republicanism. In this part of the course we examine the republics of Florence and Venice and the art and ideology which accompanied those regimes. The second part of the course explores the social history of Renaissance Italy (women, family, and sexuality) and the social significance of Renaissance art. The third part of the course looks at Renaissance Italy as the originator of the court system which dominated Europe until the time of the French Revolution. Here much consideration is given to the creation of an aristocratic style of life and princely art. The goal of the course is for students to understand not only the Renaissance itself but also the ways in which historians have interpreted the Renaissance to fit their vision of the world.

Concentration: Europe / Period: Pre-modern

HST 357 Culture & Politics in Early Modern England: From Henry VIII to Charles I

This course examines the political, cultural and social history of Early Modern England. Topics covered will include the power and image of the monarchy (cases studies - Henry VIII, Elizabeth I and Charles I); the role of the printing press in both ‘high’ and ‘low’ culture; the impact of crime and the treatment of criminals; the importance of London as a center of commerce and culture; the myth and reality of Shakespeare and the role of the theater; witchcraft and the dominance of religion in everyday life; and the role of women in a patriarchal society. The course will emphasize reading, discussion, visual culture and the use of primary sources. Requirements will include two papers, a midterm and final exam and class participation.

Concentration: Europe / Period: Pre-modern

HST 364 Origins of Modern Russia

The Russian Empire emerged relatively late in the modern era, but it quickly rose to dizzying heights of military power, cultural prestige, and influence on international politics. Powerful rulers like Ivan the Terrible and Peter the Great, literary giants like Alexander Pushkin and Fyodor Dostoevsky, radical socialists like Alexander Herzen and Vladimir  Lenin – these figures placed Russia at the center of trends that transformed European society for five hundred years. Yet by the end of the nineteenth century, the Russian Empire was in the midst of a period of precipitous decline, which led to the collapse of the 300-year-old Romanov dynasty during the First World War. This course examines the history of Russia from the emergence of the Tsarist autocratic system in the 1400s to the revolutions of 1917, focusing on the Russian state, serfdom, the Russian intellectual tradition, Russia’s imperial policies, and nineteenth-century working-class activism. We will also examine the lived experiences of various social groups within the Empire, including peasants, urban women, ethnic minorities, factory workers, and the intelligentsia.

Concentration: Europe / Period: Modern

HST 377 The History of Venice

This course will examine the history of one of the world’s most famous cities. Today the city is known as a major tourist destination. But for many centuries, Venice was one of the economic powerhouses of Europe and on the frontlines of the conflict between Western Latin Christendom and Islam. Venice was also duly famous throughout the late medieval and early modern periods for its republican form of government. After a brief introduction to the origins of Venice as a Byzantine outpost in the lagoons of the northwestern Adriatic, this course will examine the development of Venice as a colonial and trading power, the evolution of its republican form of government, the peculiar configuration of its society, and the role of art and ritual in Venetian life. The final part of the course will be devoted to a consideration of Venice’s role in the world after its fall as an independent republic. Among other topics we will consider are the Romantic preoccupation with Venice, the development of mass tourism, and the city’s response to looming ecological catastrophes.

Concentration: Europe / Period: Pre-modern

HST 386 Crime and Society in US History

This course addresses crime, deviance, and dissent in American history from the colonial period to the present, considering the ways in which the state has encouraged order and conformity among its constituents. We will examine how industrialization, immigration, urbanization, emancipation, and war transformed American society, causing the breakdown of older forms of social control such as church and community while producing significant discontented and dispossessed populations. This course also examines the expanding role of the state in controlling "deviant" behavior beginning in the late-nineteenth century and the reordering of legal priorities in the latter half of the twentieth century. Major topics include police, radicalism, alcohol, vice, sexuality, and organized crime.

Concentration: U.S. / Period: Modern

HST 391 Mary Magdalen: History of a Legend

This course examines the legends that evolved around the Biblical figure of Mary Magdalene. It begins with the New Testament, then traces the development of her legends through the early Christian and medieval eras and into such modern day versions as The Da Vinci Code.  We will pursue the development of the legends by reading primary sources, from the Bible to Christian writers, saints' lives, plays, and miracle collections. We will also engage with scholarship surrounding Mary as saint, legend and historical puzzle. Emphasis will be on discussion analyzing readings. We will also give attention to developing skills of close reading, solid argumentation and clear writing.


HST 397 Modern Korea

This course examines political, economic and social history from the middle of the nineteenth century until today.  Topics range from traditional Korea, colonialism and colonial modernity, national division, Cold War politics and the Korean War to nation building and nationalism, economic and social development, South Korean democratization, North Korean culture and society, inter-Korean affairs, the nuclear issue and security, the Korean diaspora and the “Korea Wave.”  Although we focus on Korea, discussions must also include other players in Korean affairs (i.e. the U.S., China, Japan and Russia).  By contextualizing Korea in East Asia and the world, students will have a deeper understanding of the internal and external forces that have shaped Korea and the impact Korea has had on its neighbors and beyond.  The course will rely on translations of primary sources, secondary scholarship, films and short story translations.  Requirements include weekly reading assignments, informal reaction papers, class discussions, a midterm, a final exam and a paper assignment.

Concentration: Global / Period: Modern

HST 400/600 The History of Confession from Augustine to Facebook

The famous French philosopher Michel Foucault once characterized the Western individual as a “confessing animal” and identified confession as the predominant technique of producing truth in the Western world. Confession may be rooted in late antique and medieval ascetic and pastoral practices, but the imperative of revealing one’s inner self developed a life of its own both within and outside the religious sphere. We can draw lines from the practices of self-revelation and shameful confrontation with one’s sinfulness as practiced by late antique desert monks, to modern psychoanalysis, to various therapeutic practices and maybe even to social media. Despite of the massive impact of confessional practices on our 14 world today, little work has been done in approaching the “confessing animal” from a historical perspective. The purpose of this course is to develop ideas how to write a history of confession throughout but also beyond the Middle Ages. We start by acquiring a solid repertoire of knowledge of primary sources and the most important studies on the history of confession. Every participant of this course will then write and present a research paper on a self-chosen topic related to the history of confession. The course will also have a practical component: organizing workshops, guest lectures and maybe even a conference on confession from a historical perspective in collaboration with the Syracuse University Humanities Center and the Project The “Confessing Animal “– Towards a History of Confession.

HST 401 London: Henry VIII – Brexit

This course will explore the history of the City of London from the beginnings of its rise as a metropolis under Henry VIII to its place as the financial capital of Europe and status as one of the great cities of the world. Some of the topics we will explore include the role of entertainment and the theater under Elizabeth I, the Great Fire which destroyed the city in 1666, the Dickensian underworld of Victorian crime, poverty and social injustice, its rise to world prominence in the nineteenth century, life during the blitz of World War II, and the fight against Brexit. After a few weeks on the history of the city, students will undertake research on a topic chosen in consultation with the instructor on some aspect of London’s history. The culmination of this research will be a 20 to 25-page paper.

Concentration: Europe / Period: Pre-modern or Modern

HST 401 Atlantic Revolutions, 1760-1850

In the first half of this course, students will read and discuss recent historical literature on political revolutions in the Americas and Europe from the mid-eighteenth to the mid-nineteenth century. Among the topics and questions to be considered are: How did revolutions in North America, the Caribbean, Latin America, and Europe relate to each other, and how do they fit within the frameworks of Atlantic and global histories? Did these revolutions represent a turn towards democracy, or was democracy merely an incidental and temporary result of some of these upheavals? Is democracy even a useful category for understanding revolutions? To what extent did "the people" take an active part in these revolutions? What role did women, enslaved peoples, and Native Americans play? What was the relationship between revolution and the various reform movements of the nineteenth century (abolitionism, women's rights, and socialism, to name a few)? What is the relevance of these revolutions today?

During the second half of the course, students will research and write a 20 to 25-page paper on a topic related to these questions. Students will learn how to locate, read, and make use of relevant research materials. They will work toward a final paper through a series of outlines, short writing assignments, bibliographic essays, and rough drafts.

HST 401 The Consumer in Modern Europe

The goal of this course is to produce a primary source research paper (20-25 pages) that explores a topic related to the history of the consumer in modern Europe. These projects will consider The Consumer as a subject, agent, or object of history. This means that research will focus on how consumers make and are made by historical processes.

You are welcome to pursue research on any topic in the 19th and 20th centuries, but we will focus most heavily on the period since industrialization and the new imperialism. One avenue of research might consider consumer-related policies. These could be productive, such as socialized mass production and consumerism, consumer protection, or welfare programs. These might also be destructive, including for example food blockades or genocide by starvation. Beyond consumer-related policies, you might also think about consumer activism from bread riots to contemporary ethical consumerism, localism, and fair-trade movements. You will work directly with the professor to shape and execute your project but the overarching theme of this class is to consider history from the perspective of consumers as historical subjects and actors.