Selected Resources on Social Science Field Method

Provided by Professor Diana Kapiszewski, Lauren MacLean, and Ben Read.
(Last fully updated 19 June 2019)

Designing and Conducting Field Research

Aberbach, Joel, James D. Chesney and Bert Rockman. 1975. “Exploring Elite Political Attitudes: Some Methodological Lessons.” Political Methodology 2:1-27.

Agarwala, Rina and Emmanuel Teitelbaum. 2010. “Trends in Funding for Dissertation Field Research: Why Do Political Science and Sociology Students Win So Few Awards?” PS: Political Science & Politics 43(2): 283-93.

Aldrich, D.P. 2009. “The 800-Pound Gaijin in the Room: Strategies and Tactics for Conducting Fieldwork in Japan and Abroad.” PS: Political Science and Politics 42(2): 299-304.

Bailey, Carol A. 2006. A Guide to Qualitative Field Research. Pine Forge Press.

Barrett, Christopher and Jeffery Cason. 2010. Overseas Research. JHU Press. (Note: this book has a great bibliography as well.)

Becker, Howard S. 1998. Tricks of the Trade: How to Think About Your Research While You’re Doing It. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Bernard, H. Russell. 2006. Research Methods in Anthropology: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, 4th edition. New York: AltaMira Press.

Borneman, John and Abdellah Hammoudi, Eds. (2009). Being There: The Fieldwork Encounter and the Making of Truth. Berkeley, University of California Press.

Burgess, Robert G. 1982. Field Research: A Sourcebook and Field Manual. London: George Allen and Unwin.

Burgess, Robert G. 1984. In the Field: An Introduction to Field Research. New York: Routledge.

Carapico, Sheila, Janine A. Clark, Amaney Jamal, David Romano, Jilian Schwedler, and Mark Tessler. 2006. “The Methodologies of Field Research in the Middle East.” PS: Political Science and Politics 39(3): 417-41.

Collier, David. 1999. “Data, Field Work, and Extracting New Ideas at Close Range.” APSA-CP Newsletter (Winter): 1-6.

Devereux, Stephen and John Hoddinott, eds. 1992. Fieldwork in Developing Countries. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.

Driscoll, Jesse. Forthcoming. Doing Global Fieldwork. New York: Columbia University Press.

Emerson, Robert M. 2001. Contemporary Field Research: Perspectives and Formulations. Waveland Press.

Faubion, J.D., and G. E. Marcus, eds. 2009. Fieldwork is Not What It Used to BE: Learning Anthopolgoy’s Method in a Time of Transition. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Feldman, Martha S., Jeannine Bell and Michele T. Berger eds. 2003. Gaining Access: A Practical and Theoretical Guide for Qualitative Researchers. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press

Fiedler, J. (1978). Field Research: A Manual for Logistics and Management of Scientific Studies in Natural Settings. San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass, Inc. Publishers.

Franklin, Billy J. and Howard W. Osborn, eds. 1971. Research Methods: Issues and Insights. Belmont, California: Wadsworth.

Heimer, Matia and Stig Thøgersen, eds. 2006. Doing Fieldwork in China. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.

Johnson, Burke and Lisa A. Turner. 2003. “Data Collection Strategies in Mixed Methods Research.” Chapter 11 in Abbas Tashakkori and Charles Teddlie, eds., Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social & Behavioral Research. London: Sage Publications.

Karlan, D. and Appel, J., 2018. Failing in the field: what we can learn when field research goes wrong. Princeton University Press.

Krause, Peter, and Ora Szekely, eds. 2020. Stories from the Field: A Guide to Navigating Fieldwork in Political Science. New York: Columbia University Press.

Laitin, David. 1986. Hegemony and Culture: Politics and Religious Change Among the Yoruba. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Appendix (p. 185-205).

Lieberman, Evan, Marc Howard, and Julia Lynch. “Symposium: Field Research.” Qualitative Methods Newsletter (Spring 2004): 2-18

Loaeza, Soledad, Randy Stevenson, and Devra C. Moehler. 2005. “Symposium: Should Everyone Do Fieldwork?” APSA‐CP 16, 2:8‐18.

Lofland, John, David Snow, Leon Anderson and Lyn Lofland. 2006. Analyzing Social Settings: A Guide to Qualitative Observation and Analysis, 4th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Lynch, Julia. 2004. “Tracking Progress While in the Field.” in "Symposium: Field Research." Qualitative Methods 2(1): 10-15.

McDermott, Rose, ed. 2010. Symposium on Data Collection and Collaboration. PS: Political Science and Politics 43(1): 15-58.

Miller, Gale and Robert Dingwall, eds. 1997. Context and Method in Qualitative Research. Sage.

National Science Foundation. “Interpreting the Common Rule for the Protection of Human Subjects for Behavioral and Social Science Research.” (No date).

Ortbals, Candice D. and Meg. E. Rincker, eds. 2009. “Symposium: Fieldwork, Identities, and Intersectionality: Negotiating Gender, Race, Class, Religion, Nationality, and Age in the Research Field Abroad.” PS: Political Science and Politics 42 (2): 287-328.

Perecman, Ellen and Sara Curran. 2006. A Handbook for Social Science Field Research: Essays & Bibliographic Sources on Research Design and Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Porter, E., G. Robinson, et al., Eds. (2005). Researching Conflict in Africa: Insights and Experiences. New York, NY, United Nations University Press.

Rabinow, Paul. 1977. Reflections on Fieldwork in Morocco. Berkeley: UCPress.

Robson, Colin. 2002. Real World Research: A Resource for Social Scientists and Practitioner-Researchers. Madden, MA: Blackwell Publishers.

Schutt, Russell. 1996. Investigating the Social World: The Process and Practice of Research. Pine Forge Press.

Scheyvens, Regina and Donovan Storey, eds. 2003. Development Fieldwork: A Practical Guide. Sage.

Schrag, Zachary. 2010. Ethical imperialism: Institutional review boards and the social sciences, 1965-2009. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Shaffir, W. B. and R. A. Stebbins, Eds. (1991). Experiencing Fieldwork: An Inside View of Qualitative Research. Newbury Park, Sage Publications.

Sriram, Chandra Lekha, John C. King, Julie Mertus, Olga Martin-Ortega, and Johanna Herman, eds. 2009. Surviving Research: Doing Fieldwork in Violent and Difficult Situations. New York: Routledge

Symposium in the July 2018 PS

Tansey, Oisín. 2007. “Process Tracing and Elite Interviewing: A Case for Non-Probability Sampling.” PS: Political Science and Politics 40(4).

Ward, Robert et. al. 1964. Studying Politics Abroad: Field Research in the Developing Areas. Boston: Little, Brown.

Warren, Carol A. B. and Tracy X. Karner (2009). Discovering Qualitative Methods: Field Research, Interviews, and Analysis. New York: Oxford University Press.

Whyte, W. F. (1984). Learning from the Field: A Guide from Experience. Beverly Hills, CA, Sage Publications.

Wolcott, Harry F. The Art of Fieldwork. Rowman Altamira.

Wood, Elisabeth. 2007. “Field Methods.” In Carles Boix and Susan Stokes (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Politics.

Archival Research

Elder, G., Jr., E. Pavalko, et al. (1993). Working with Archival Data: Studying Lives. Newbury Park, Sage Publications.

Frisch, Scott, Douglas Harris, Sean Kelly, and David Parker. 2012. Doing archival research in political science. Amherst, NY: Cambria Press.

Goldthorpe, John H. 2000. On Sociology: Numbers, Narratives, and the Integration of Research and Theory. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000, pp.65-93.

Greenstein, Fred I. and Richard H. Immerman. 1992. “What Did Eisenhower Tell Kennedy About Indochina? The Politics of Misperception.” Journal of American History 79(2): 568-87.

Harrison, Hope. M. 1992. “Inside the SED Archives: A Researcher’s Diary.” Bulletin of the Cold War International History Project.” 2.

Hill, Michael R. 1993. Archival Strategies and Techniques. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Johnson, Victoria, Melissa Wilde, and Simone and Polillo. 2008. Essays in “From the Archives: Innovative Use of Data in Comparative Historical Research.” Trajectories: Newsletter of the Comparative Historical Section of the ASA 19(2): 1-9.

Judd, Charles M., Eliot R. Smith, and Louise H. Kidder. Research Methods in Social Relations. Orlando: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1991, pp.287-297.

Lustick, Ian S. 1996. “History, Historiography, and Political Science: Multiple Historical Records and the Problem of Selection Bias,” American Political Science Review 90(3): 605-618.

Prior, Lindsay. 2003. Using Documents in Social Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Thies, Cameron G. “A Pragmatic Guide to Qualitative Historical Analysis in the Study of International Relations.” International Studies Perspectives 3, 2002: 351-72.

Trachtenberg, Marc. 2006. The Craft of International History: A Guide to Method. (Princeton: Princeton University Press.


Wood, Elisabeth Jean. 2006. “The Ethical Challenges of Field Research in Conflict Zones". Qualitative Sociology 29: 373386.

Fujii, Lee Ann. 2012. "Research Ethics 101: Dilemmas and Responsibilities" PS: Political Science and Politics 45(4): 717-23. (Attached) See question #3 above. Cronin-Furman and Milli Lake. 2018.

"Ethics Abroad: Fieldwork in Fragile and Violent Contexts." PS: Political Science and Politics 51 (3): 607-614.

Daku, Mark. 2018. "Ethics Beyond Ethics: The Need for Virtuous Researchers." BMC Medical Ethics 19 (S1).


Abramson, Scott, and Graeme Blair. 2011. Borders as a natural experiment: Assessing the causal effects of British colonialism in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Annual Meeting of the Midwestern Political Science Association. Chicago, IL.

Ahn, T.K., Elinor Ostrom, and James Walker. 2010. "A Common-Pool Resource Experiment with Postgraduate Subjects from 41 Countries." Ecological Economics no. 69 (12):2624-2633.

Beath, Andrew, Fotini Christia, and Ruben Enikolopov. 2013. "Empowering women through development aid: Evidence from a field experiment in Afghanistan." American Political Science Review no. 107 (3):540-557.

Butler, Daniel M., and David E. Broockman. 2011. "Do politicians racially discriminate against constituents? A field experiment on state legislators." American Journal of Political Science no. 55 (3):463-477.

Chattopadhyay, Raghabendra, and Esther Duflo. 2004. "Women as policymakers: Evidence from a randomized policy experiment in India." Econometrica no. 72:1409-43.

Desposato, Scott. 2018. “Subjects and Scholars’ Views on the Ethics of Political Science Field Experiments.” Perspectives on Politics, 16(3), 739-750. DOI:10.1017/S1537592717004297

Druckman, James N., Donald P. Green, James H. Kuklinski, and Arthur Lupia. 2006. "The Growth and Development of Experimental Research Political Science." American Political Science Review no. 100:627-36.

Druckman, James N., Donald P. Green, James H. Kuklinski and Arthur Lupia, eds. 2011. Cambridge handbook of experimental political science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dunning, Thad. 2008. "Natural and field experiments: The role of qualitative methods." Qualitative and Multi-Method Research no. 6 (2):17-23.

Dunning, Thad. 2012. Natural experiments in the social sciences: A design-based approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dunning, Thad and Lauren Harrison. 2010. “Cross-cutting Cleavages and Ethnic Voting: An Experimental Study of Cousinage in Mali.” American Political Science Review 104(1).

Gaines, Brian J., James H. Kuklinski, and Paul J. Quirk. 2007. "The logic of the survey experiment reexamined." Political Analysis no. 15 (1):1-20.

Gerber, Alan S., and Donald P. Green. 2000. "The effects of canvassing, direct mail, and telephone contact on voter turnout: A field experiment." American Political Science Review no. 94 (3):653-663.

Gerber, Alan S., and Donald P. Green. 2012. Field experiments: Design, analysis, and interpretation. New York: W. W. Norton.

Gerber, Alan S., Donald P. Green, and Christopher W. Larimer. 2008. "Social pressure and voter turnout: Evidence from a large-scale field experiment." American Political Science Review no. 102 (1):33-48.

Green, Donald and Alan Gerber. 2002. “Reclaiming the Experimental Tradition in Political Science.” In Political Science: State of the Discipline, eds. Ira Katznelson and Helen Milner. New York: Norton. pp. 805‐832.

Habyarimana, James, Macartan Humphreys, Daniel N. Posner, and Jeremy M. Weinstein. 2007. "Why does ethnic diversity undermine public goods provision: An experimental approach." American Political Science Review no. 101 (4):709-725.

Han, Hahrie C. 2009. "Does the content of political appeals matter in motivating participation? A field experiment on self-disclosure in political appeals." Political Behavior no. 31 (1):103-116.

Humphreys, Macartan. 2011. "Ethical challenges of embedded experimentation." Comparative Democratization (APSA-CD) no. 9 (3):10, 23-29.

Humphreys, Macartan, and Jeremy Weinstein. 2009. "Field experiments and the political economy of development." Annual Review of Political Science no. 12:367-378.

Hyde, Susan D. 2007. “The Observer Effect in International Politics: Evidence from a Natural Experiment.” World Politics 60(1): 37-63.

Kam, Cindy, Jennifer R. Wilking, and Elizabeth J. Zechmeister. 2007. "Beyond the 'narrow data base': Another convenience sample for experimental research." Political Behavior no. 29:415-40.

List, John A. 2011. "Why economists should conduct field experiments and 14 tips for pulling one off." Journal of Economic Perspectives no. 25 (3):3-16.

Maxwell, Scott E., and Harold D. Delaney. 2004. Designing experiments and analyzing data: A model comparison perspective. New York, NY: Psychology Press.

McClendon, Gwyneth H. 2012. "Ethics of using public officials as field experiment subjects." The Experimental Political Scientist no. 3 (1):13-20.

Morton, Rebecca B., and Kenneth C. Williams. 2010. Experimental political science and the study of causality: From nature to the lab. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press

Mutz, Diana Carole. 2011. Population-based survey experiments. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Nickerson, David W. 2008. "Is voting contagious? Evidence from two field experiments." American Political Science Review no. 102 (1):49-57.

Ocantos, Ezequiel Gonzalez, Chad Kiewiet de Jonge, and David W. Nickerson. 2013. "The conditionality of vote-buying norms: Experimental evidence from Latin America." American Journal of Political Science no. 58 (1):197–211.

Olken, Benjamin A. 2007. "Monitoring corruption: Evidence from a field experiment in Indonesia." Journal of Political Economy no. 115 (2):200-249.

Olken, Benjamin A. 2010. "Direct democracy and local public goods: Evidence from a field experiment in Indonesia." American Political Science Review no. 104 (2):243-267.

Paluck, Elizabeth Levy. 2010. “The Promising Integration of Qualitative Methods and Field Experiments.” ANNALS, AAPSS, 628: 59-71.

Paluck, Elizabeth Levy, and Donald P. Green. 2009. "Deference, dissent, and dispute resolution: An experimental intervention using mass media to change norms and behavior in Rwanda." American Political Science Review no. 103 (4):622-644.

Sekhon, Jasjeet S., and Rocio Titiunik. 2012. "When natural experiments are neither natural nor experiments." American Political Science Review no. 106 (1):35-57.

Shadish, William R., Thomas D. Cook, and Donald T. Campbell. 2001. Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for generalized causal inference. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Sheely, Ryan. 2011. “Regimes and Randomization: The Politics of Research in Contemporary Kenya. Prepared for presentation at the Midwest Political Science Association meeting, Chicago, IL, April 2011.

Sherman, Lawrence, and Heather Strang. 2004. "Experimental ethnography: The marriage of qualitative and quantitative research." The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science (595):204-222.

Wantchekon, Leonard. 2003. "Clientelism and voting behavior: Evidence from a field experiment in Benin." World Politics no. 55 (3):399-422.

Focus Groups

Barbour, Rosaline. 2007. Doing Focus Groups. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications

Cyr, Jennifer. 2019. "An integrative approach to measurement: focus groups as a survey pretest." Quality & Quantity 53(2): 897-913.

Cyr, Jennifer. 2019. Focus Groups for the Social Science Researcher. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chapters 1&2 (pp. 1-39).

Cyr, Jennifer. 2016. “The Pitfalls and Promise of Focus Groups as a Data Collection Method.” Sociological Methods and Research. 45(2): 231-59.

Cyr, Jennifer. 2017. "The unique utility of focus groups for mixed-methods research." PS: Political Science & Politics 50(4): 1038-1042.

Hennink, M. M. (2007). International Focus Group Research: A Handbook for the Health and Social Sciences. New York, Cambridge University Press.

Krueger, R. A. (1988). Focus Groups: A Practical Guide for Applied Research. Newbury Park, Sage Publications.

Morgan, David. 1997. Focus Groups as Qualitative Research. 2nd ed. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.

Short, Susan E., Ellen Perecman, and Sara R. Curran. 2006. “Focus Groups.” Chapter 5 in Ellen Perecman and Sara Curran, eds. A Handbook for Social Science Field Research: Essays & Bibliographic Sources on Research Design and Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Stewart, David, and Prem N. Shamdasani. 2014. Focus groups: Theory and practice, 3rd ed. London: Sage Publications, Inc.
GIS/Spatial Analysis

Diani, Mario. 2002. “Network Analysis.” In Klandermans, Bert, and Suzanne Staggenborg, eds.

Methods of Social Movement Research. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. pp. 173‐

Kocher, Matthew and David Laitin. 2006. “On Tarrow’s Space.” APSA‐CP Newsletter. 17, 2:25‐28.

Sinton, D. and J. Lund. 2007. “What is GIS? A very brief description for the newly curious.” In Understanding Place, eds. D. Sinton and J Lund. Redlands, CA: ESRI Press.

Tarrow, Sidney. 2006. “Space and Comparative Politics.” APSA‐CP Newsletter. 17, 1:1‐4.


Aberbach, Joel D., James D. Chesney and Bert A. Rockman. 1975. “Exploring Elite Political Attitudes: Some Methodological Lessons.” Political Methodology 2:1-27.

Aberbach, Joel D., Jeffrey M. Berry, Kenneth Goldstein, Poina M. Kozyreva, Beth L. Leech, Sharon Werning Rivera, Bert A. Rockman, Eduard G. Sarovskii, and Laura R. Woliver. 2002. “Symposium: Interview Methods in Political Science.” Political Science & Politics 35(4): 663-88.

Amyx, Jennifer “The Role of Interviews in Political Science Research,” paper presented at the International Symposium on Oral History Sponsored by the National Graduate Research
Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS) Tokyo, Japan (November 8-9, 2002).

Anderson, Kathryn, and Dana C. Jack. 1991. “Learning to Listen: Interview Techniques and Analysis.” in Women’s Words: The Feminist Practice of Oral History, edited by Sherna Berger Gluck and Daphne Patai, New York: Routledge, pp. 11-25.

Briggs, Charles L. 1986. Learning How to Ask. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dean, John P. and William Foote Whyte. 1970. ”What Kind of Truth Do You Get?” in Elite and Specialized Interviewing, edited by Lewis Anthony Dexter, Northwestern University Press, pp. 119- 138.

Dexter, Lewis Anthony. 2008. Elite and Specialized Interviewing. European Consortium for Political Research Press.

Gubrium, James, James Holstein, Amir Marvasti and Karyn McKinney, eds.. 2012. The Sage handbook of interview research: the complexity of the craft. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Judd, Charles M., Eliot R. Smith and Louise H. Kidder. 1991. Research Methods in Social Relations. Orlando: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich., Chapter 11.

Keats, Daphne. M. 2000. Interviewing: A Practical Guide for Students and Professionals. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Kvale, Steinar. 1996. InterViews: An Introduction to Qualitative Research Interviewing. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Kvale, Steinar. 2007. Doing Interviews. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications

Marland, Alex and Anna Lennox Esselment. 2018. “Negotiating with gatekeepers to get interviews with politicians: qualitative research recruitment in a digital media environment.” Qualitative Research 1–18.

Mishler, Elliot G. 1991. Research Interviewing Context and Narrative. Harvard University Press.

Mosley, Layna, ed. 2013. Interview Research in Political Science. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Murphy, Gerome. 1981. Getting the Facts: A Fieldwork Guide for Evaluators and Policy Analysts. Goodyear Publishing Company.

Payne, Stanley. 1951. The Art of Asking Questions (Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Read, Benjamin L. 2018. “Serial Interviews: When and Why to Talk to Someone More than Once. International Journal of Qualitative Methods 17: 1-10. DOI:10.1177/1609406918783452

Rubin, Herbert J. and Irene S. Rubin. 2004. Qualitative Interviewing: The Art of Hearing Data, 2nd edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Soss, Joe. 2006. “Talking Our Way to Meaningful Explanations: A Practice-Centered View of Interviewing for Interpretive Research.” Chapter 6 in Dvora Yanow and Peregrine Schwartz-Shea, eds.

Interpretation and Method: Empirical Research Methods and the Interpretive Turn. ME Sharpe.

Tansey, Oisín. 2007. “Process Tracing and Elite Interviewing: A Case for Non-Probability Sampling.” PS: Political Science and Politics 40(4).

Vansina, Jan. “Oral Tradition Assessed.” 1985. In Oral Tradition as History. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, p. 186-201.

Weiss, R. S. (1995) Learning from Strangers: The Art and Method of Qualitative Interview Studies. New York: The Free Press.

Wood, Elisabeth. 2003. Insurgent Collective Action and Civil War in El Salvador (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2003), pp. 1-87, 193-256.

Participant Observation/Ethnography

Amit, V., Ed. (2000). Constructing the Field: Ethnographic Fieldwork in the Contemporary World. London, Routledge

Aunger, Robert. 1995. “On Ethnography: Storytelling or Science?” Current Anthropology 36, 1:97‐130.

Ball, M. S. and G. W. H. Smith (1992). Analyzing Visual Data. Newbury Park, Sage Publications.

Barley, Nigel. 1992. Innocent Anthropologist: Notes from a Mud Hut. New York: Holt, 1992.

Bayard de Volvo, Lorraine and Edward Schatz. 2004. “From the Inside Out: Ethnographic Methods in Political Research.” PS: Political Science and Politics. 37(2): 267-271.

Beteille, Andre and T.N. Madan, eds., Encounter and Experience: Personal Accounts of Fieldwork. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii.

Bouchard, Thomas. 1976. “Unobtrusive Measures: An Inventory of Uses.” Sociological Methods and Research 4(3): 276-299.

Burawoy, Michael. 1991. “Teaching Participant Observation.” In Michael Burawoy, editor, Ethnography Unbound (University of California Press), 291-300.

Driscoll, Jesse and Caroline Schuster. 2018. "Spies Like Us." Ethnography. (Online First)

Emerson, Robert, Rachel Fretz, and Linda Shaw. 2011. Writing ethnographic fieldnotes. 2nd edition ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Fenno, Richard. 1978. Home Style: House Members in their Districts. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., Appendix – Notes on Method: Participant Observation.

Fenno, Richard. 1990. Watching Politicians: Essays on Participant Observation. (Berkeley: IGS Press, Institute of Governmental Studies.

Ferguson, James and Akhil Gupta, eds. 1997. Anthropological Locations: Boundaries and Grounds of a Field Science. Berkeley, CA, University of California Press.

Fetterman, David. 1998. Ethnography: Step-by-Step. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Geertz, Clifford. 1973. The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books.

Hardin, Rebecca and Kamari Maxine Clarke, eds.. 2012. Transforming ethnographic knowledge. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Jorgensen, Danny L. 1989. Participant Observation. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Laitin, David. 1986. Hegemony and Culture: Politics and Religious Change Among the Yoruba. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Appendix (p. 185-205).

Lee, R. M. (2000). Unobtrusive Methods in Social Research. Buckingham, Open University Press.

Lichterman, Paul. 2002. “Seeing Structure Happen: Theory-Driven Participant Observation.” In Bert Klandermans and Suzanne Staggenborg, eds. Methods of Social Movement Research. University of Minnesota Press.

Klandermans and S. Staggenborg, eds. Methods of Social Movement Research. Minneapolis, MN:University of Minnesota Press. pp.118-45.

Myron J. Arnoff and Jan Kubik, Anthropology and Political Science: A Convergent Approach (New York: Berghan Books, 2015)

Pachirat, Timothy. 2014. Ethnography and interpretation. New York: Routledge.

Paller, Jeff. 2013. Ethnography as empirical strategy: Process, networks, and spontaneity. In American Political Science Association. Chicago, IL.

Rabinow, Paul. 1977. Reflections on Fieldwork in Morocco. Berkeley: UCPress.

Read, Ben. 2010. "More than an Interview, Less than Sedaka: Studying Subtle and Hidden Politics with Site-Intensive Methods." In Chinese Politics: New Sources, Methods, and Field Strategies, ed.

Allen Carlson, Mary Gallagher, Kenneth Lieberthal and Melanie Manion. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Read, Ben, Lauren Morris MacLean and Melani Cammett. 2006. Symposium, Field Research: How Rich? How Thick? How Participatory? Qualitative Methods 4(2): 9-18.

Renato, Rosaldo. 1986. “From the Door of His Tent: The Fieldworker and the Inquisitor.” In James Clifford and George E. Marcus, eds. Writing Culture: The Poetics and Politics of Ethnography (California, 77-97)

Schatz, Edward, ed. 2009. Political Ethnography: What Immersion Contributes to the Study of Power. University of Chicago.

Schatz, Edward, Dvora Yanow, Jan Kubik, Timothy Pachirat, and Dorian Warren. 2009. “Symposium: Ethnographic Methods in Political Science.” Qualitative and Multi-Method Research Newsletter 7(2): 32-50.

Spradley, James P. 1997. The Ethnographic Interview. Wadsworth.

Trotter, Robert. 1999. “Friends, Relatives and Relevant Others: Conducting Ethnographic Network Studies,” in Jean Schensul et al., Mapping Social Networks, Spatial Data, and Hidden Populations (1999), 1-50.

Van Maanen, John. 1988. Tales of the Field: On Writing Ethnography. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Vansina, Jan. 1985. “Oral Tradition Assessed.” Chapter 7 in Oral Tradition as History. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Wax, Rosalie H. 1975. Doing Fieldwork: Warnings and Advice. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Wedeen, Lisa. 2010. "Reflections on ethnographic work in political science." Annual Review of Political Science no. 13:255-272.

Williams, Brackette F. 1996. “Skinfolk, Not Kinfolk: Comparative Reflections on the Identity of Participant Observation in Two Field Situations.” Chapter 3 in Diane Wolf, ed., Feminist Dilemmas in Fieldwork. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Yanow, Dvora. 2006. “How Built Spaces Mean: A Semiotics of Space.” In Dvora Yanow and Peregrine Schwartz-Shea, eds. Interpretation and Method: Empirical Research Methods and the Interpretive Turn. ME Sharpe.

Special Topics

Ahram, Ariel I. and J. Paul Goode. 2016. “Researching Authoritarianism in the Discipline of Political Science.” Social Science Quarterly 97(4): 834-849. DOI:10.1111/ssqu.12340

Carlson, Allen, Mary E. Gallagher, Kenneth Lieberthal, and Melanie Manion. 2010. Chinese politics: New sources, methods, and field strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Chakravarty, Anuradha. 2012. "Partially trusting' field relationships: Opportunities and constraints of fieldwork in Rwanda's postconflict setting." Field Methods no. 24 (3):251-271.

Druckman, Daniel. 2005. Doing Research: Methods of Inquiry for Conflict Analysis. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2005

Glasius, Marlies, Meta de Lange, Jos Bartman, Emanuela Dalmasso, Aofei Lv, Adele Del Sordi,

Marcus Michaelsen and Kris Ruijgrok. 2018. Research, Ethics and Risk in the Authoritarian Field. Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan. DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-68966-1

Howard, Philip, Aiden Duffy, Deen Freelon, Muzammil Hussain, Will Mari, and Marwa Mazaid. 2011. The project on information technology and political islam. Research Memo. Seattle, University of Washington.

Hsueh, Roselyn. 2008. “Crossing the River by Feeling for Stones: Conducting Research in Varying Contexts in China.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston, Massachusetts.

Kayuni, Happy, and Adel Saleh Mohmed. 2013. Field Research for Hire: The Politics of Consultancies. Symposium: Field Research in Africa: New Challenges and Strategies in the 21st Century 9 (1): 12-13

Kenyon, Kristi Heather. 2017. “Bringing the field into the classroom: Methods and experiential learning in the ‘Politics of Development.” Politics, 37(1), 97–112. DOI:10.1177/0263395716633905

Lee-Treweek, G. and S. Linkogle, Eds. (2000). Danger in the Field: Risk and Ethics in Social Research. New York, Routledge.

Michelitch, K., 2018. "Whose Research Is It? Political Scientists Discuss Whether, How, and Why We Should Involve the Communities We Study." PS: Political Science & Politics, 51(3), pp.543-545.

Morgenbesser, Lee and Meredith L. Weiss. (2018): Survive and Thrive: Field Research in Authoritarian Southeast Asia.” Asian Studies Review. DOI:10.1080/10357823.2018.1472210

Punch, M. (1986). The Politics and Ethics of Fieldwork. Beverly Hills, CA, Sage Publications, Inc.

Sieber, Joan E. 1992. Planning Ethically Responsible Research (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Smyth, M. and R. Gillian, eds., Researching Violently Divided Societies. Ethical and Methodological Issues, London: UN University Press, 2001.

Tessler, Mark, Matthew F. Cancian, Kristin E. Fabbe. Anna Getmansky, Faten Ghosn, Sarah E. Parkinson , Diana B. Greenwald, Tolga Sınmazdemir, and Thomas Zeitzoff. 2019. Symposium: Reflections on Scholarship and Fieldwork in the Middle East and North Africa.” PS: Political Science & Politics 52(3): 481-512.

Thomson, Susan, An Ansoms, and Jude Murison, eds. 2012. Emotional and ethical challenges for field research in Africa: The story behind the findings. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Townsend, Robert M., Sakunthasathien Sombat, and Rob Jordan. 2013. Chronicles from the field: The Townsend Thai project. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

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