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A.H. Peter Castro

Associate Professor, Anthropology

Peter_Castro Headshot

Contact Information
ahcastro@maxwell.syr.edu

411B Maxwell Hall
(315) 443-1971
Curriculum Vitae
A. Peter Castro CV

Robert D. McClure Professor of Teaching Excellence

Degree

Ph.D., University of California, Santa Barbara, 1988

Specialties

Applied anthropology, rural development policy and planning, environmental conflict management,climate change, forestry, food security, refugees, East Africa

Biography

I am an applied cultural anthropologist with research interests in development planning and policy, environmental conflicts, natural resource management (especially community forestry), climate change, agriculture, rural social change, and the history of applied anthropology. Most of my fieldwork and research experience is in East Africa - Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, and most recently, Darfur, Sudan, where I have served as a consultant for the Near East Foundation. I have also worked briefly in Mali and Bangladesh.

With Dan Taylor and David Brokensha, I recently co-edited Climate Change and Threatened Communities: Vulnerability, Capacity, and Action, published by Practical Action. This book presents 15 case studies by 29 authors documenting the capacities and constraints encountered among communities facing climate change in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. I authored a case study entitled, "Social Vulnerability, Climatic Variability, and Uncertainty in Rural Ethiopia: A Study of South Wollo and Oromiya Zones of Eastern Amhara Region," and with Yassir Hassan Satti I co-authored another case study: "Climate Change and the Future of Onion and Potato Production in West Darfur, Sudan: A Case Study of Zalingei Locality." I also co-authored the "Introduction" and "Conclusion" with Dan and David, and prepared a short section on "Resources" for follow-up on climate change issues. The tables of contents, endorsements of the book (from Robert Chambers, Thayer Scudder, L. Jan Slikkerveer, and Gill Shepherd), and ordering information can be accessed at: http://practicalaction.org/climate-change-and-threatened-communities.

I have been conducting research on the history of American applied anthropology, focusing on the career of Charles J. Erasmus, a pioneer in applied medical and agricultural anthropology. Erasmus also contributed substantially to anthropological theory, especially regarding cooperation, culture change, and cultural evolution. He was an innovative fieldworker as well, including pioneering time-allocation studies in the late 1940s and doing multi-sited fieldwork in the early 1950s. One output from this research, a study of the Smithsonian Institution's Institute of Social Anthropology, was published in the Journal of International and Global Studies (see below).

From 1999 to 2007. I was part of the BASIS Greater Horn of Africa Collaborative Research Support Program's project on food security and livelihoods in South Wollo and Oromiya Zones of Amhara Region in Ethiopia. The project consisted of a multidisciplinary team from the Institute of Development Research at Addis Ababa University, the Institute for Development Anthropology, and several American universities.

I have worked with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) on natural resource conflict management, including developing training materials and editing case studies. With Antonia Engel I edited and contributed to Negotiation and Mediation Techniques for Natural Resource Management: Case Studies and Lessons Learned (Rome, Italy: FAO, 2007). Erik Nielsen and I also edited and contributed to Natural Resource Conflict Management Case Studies: An Analysis of Power, Participation and Protected Areas (Rome, Italy, 2003). I also contributed to other FAO conflict management publications as an author and editor (see below). My service as a consultant for FAO dates back to the early 1980s with the co-editing of Wood Fuel Surveys (with David Brokensha) and it has included such issues as participatory forestry and rural development planning.

My other past applied experience includes working on natural resource management, rural financial markets, and community forestry for the United States Agency for International Development, serving as team leader for the evaluation of Bangladesh's social forestry project for the United Nations Development Programme, carrying out social surveys of refugee camps in Somalia for CARE, and providing training on natural resource conflicts for the United Nations Interagency Framework for Coordination on Preventative Action and other organizations.

Much of my Kenyan research has concentrated on the social history of natural resource management and agrarian change, including the impacts of colonialism, in Kirinyaga District. I have also been concerned with religious change and its impact on cultural landscapes. My publications have examined cotton production, coffee cooperatives, the Kenya Tea Development Authority, large-scale contract agriculture during World War II, conflicts over common property resources (including state forest reserves, community woodland, and sacred groves), colonial farm forestry, and the Mau Mau War.

As of June 2012, I have served as the main faculty advisor for nine students who earned their doctorates in the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs: Hong Anh Vu (Anthropology), Anthony Nocella (Social Science), Mengistu Dessalegn Debela (Anthropology), Vikas Choudhary (Anthropology), David Sorbello (Social Science), Lee Cerveny (Anthropology), Kreg Ettenger (Anthropology), Barbara Franz (International Relations), and Bill Waters (Anthropology). In addition, I have served on the doctoral committees of an additional 44 students in anthropology, sociology, forestry, environmental science, education, and other fields who have completed or successfully defended their dissertations at Syracuse University, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, and Binghamton University. I also served on the MA/MS committees of 59 additional students who obtained their degrees. In 2011, I received an Excellence in Graduate Education Faculty Recognition Award from the Graduate School of Syracuse University.

 

Publications

2015  Castro, A. Peter and Brokensha, D.W., "Development: Social-Anthropological Aspects." In: James D. Wright (editor-in-chief), The International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2nd edition, Vol. 6. Oxford: Elsevier. pp. 301-306.

2014  Castro, A. Peter, "Resource Conflict, Food, and Agriculture." In: Paul B. Thompson and David M. Kaplan (Eds.), The Encyclopedia of Food and Agricultural Ethics. New York: Springer, pp. 1592-1599.

2014  Castro, A. Peter, "Project Assessment: Darfur Community Peace and Stability Fund, Project Title: Resources, Economic Security and Peace in Darfur (Final Report)." Syracuse: Near East Foundation, 23 pp.

2014  Castro, A. Peter, "Resources, Livelihood and Security in Darfur: Midterm Assessment Final Report." Syracuse: Near East Foundation, 23 pp.

2014  Castro, A. Peter, "Promoting Peacebuilding and Recovery in Central Darfur, Sudan: A Summary of Findings." Syracuse, Near East Foundation, 8 pp.

2013  Castro, A. Peter, "Training Manual: Techniques of Conflict Resolution,Training of Trainers Workshop, Sévaré, Mopti Region, Mali." Syracuse: Near East Foundation, Program to Support Food Security and the Resilience of Population to Social and Climate Crises in the Region of Mopti, Mali, 85 pp.

2012  A. Peter Castro, Dan Taylor, and David W. Brokensha (editors), Climate Change and Threatened Communities: Vulnerability, Capacity and Action. London: Practical Action Publishers, 224 pp.

2012  A. Peter Castro, Dan Taylor, and David W. Brokensha, “Introduction” pp. 1-14 in Climate Change and Threatened Communities: Vulnerability, Capacity and Action, edited by A. Peter Castro, Dan Taylor, and David W. Brokensha. London: Practical Action Publishers.

2012  A. Peter Castro, “Social Vulnerability, Climatic Variability, and Uncertainty in Rural Ethiopia: A Study of South Wollo and Oromiya Zones of Eastern Amhara Region,” pp. 29-40 in Climate Change and Threatened Communities: Vulnerability, Capacity and Action, edited by A. Peter Castro, Dan Taylor, and David W. Brokensha. London: Practical Action Publishers.

2012  Yassir Hassan Satti and A. Peter Castro, “Climate Change and the Future of Onion and Potato Production in West Darfur, Sudan: A Case Study of Zalingei Locality,” pp. 81-92 in Climate Change and Threatened Communities: Vulnerability, Capacity and Action, edited by A. Peter Castro, Dan Taylor, and David W. Brokensha. London: Practical Action Publishers.

2012  Dan Taylor, A. Peter Castro, and David W. Brokensha, “Conclusion,” pp. 197-200 in Climate Change and Threatened Communities: Vulnerability, Capacity and Action, edited by A. Peter Castro, Dan Taylor, and David W. Brokensha. London: Practical Action Publishers.

2012  A. Peter Castro, “Resources” pp. 201-205 in Climate Change and Threatened Communities: Vulnerability, Capacity and Action, edited by A. Peter Castro, Dan Taylor, and David W. Brokensha. London: Practical Action Publishers.

2011  A. Peter Castro, "Viewpoint," Natural Resource Forum 35 (4), p. 335.

2011  A. Peter Castro, Review of Introduction to International Development: Approaches, Actors, and Issues, edited by Paul A. Haslam, Jessica Schafer, and Pierre Beaudet. Ontario: Oxford University Press, 2009. Journal of International and Global Studies        2 (2), pp. 102-104. Available online at:
http://www.lindenwood.edu/jigs/docs/volume2Issue2/bookReviews/102-105.pdf

2010   A. Peter Castro, “Collaborative Researchers or Cold Warriors? The Origins,  Activities, and Legacy of the Smithsonian's Institute of Social Anthropology,” Journal of International and Global Studies 2 (1): 56-82. Available online at:
http://www.lindenwood.edu/jigs/docs/volume2Issue1/essays/56-82.pdf

2010  A. Peter Castro, “Academic Freedom and Academic Responsibility: Some Personal Reflections,” in Academic Repression: Reflections from the Academic Industrial Complex, edited by Steven Best, Peter McLaren, and Anthony J. Nocella. Boston: AK Press, pp. 247-260.

2009  A. Peter Castro, “Communities and Natural Resource Conflicts in Africa: Reflections on Conflict Management Options for Peace-building in Darfur,” in Environment and Conflict in Africa: Reflections on Darfur, edited by Marcel Leroy. Addis Ababa: United Nations University for Peace, African Programme, pp. 341-354. Available online at: http://www.africa.upeace.org/documents/environment_files.pdf

2008  A. Peter Castro, Review of Nuer-American Passages: Globalizing Sudanese Migration by Dianna J. Shandy, American Anthropologist 110 (1), pp. 141-142.

2008  A. Peter Castro, “Forestry: Eastern Africa,” in John Middleton (Editor in Chief), New Encyclopedia of Africa, Volume 2. Detroit: Thomson & Gale, pp. 403-405.

2008  David W. Brokensha and A. Peter Castro, “Energy: Domestic,” in John Middleton (Editor in Chief), New Encyclopedia of Africa, Volume 2. Detroit: Thomson & Gale, pp. 263-266.

2007  A. Peter Castro and Antonia Engel (editors) Negotiation and Mediation Techniques for Natural Resource Management: Case Studies and Lessons Learned. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2007, 74 pages. Available online at: ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/011/a1081e/a1081e01.pdf

2007   A. Peter Castro and Antonia Engel, “Introduction: Building Local Capacity to Manage and Resolve Natural Resource Conflicts in Africa,” in Negotiation and Mediation Techniques for Natural Resource Management: Case Studies and Lessons Learned. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, pp. 1-11. Available online at: ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/011/a1081e/a1081e01.pdf

2007  A. Peter Castro and Antonia Engel, “Conclusions: Findings and Lessons Learned,” in Negotiation and Mediation Techniques for Natural Resource Management: Case Studies and Lessons Learned. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, pp. 53-63. Available online at: ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/011/a1081e/a1081e01.pdf

2006  Peter D. Little, M. Priscilla Stone, Tewodaj Mogues, A. Peter Castro, and Workneh Negatu, “Moving in Place: Drought and Poverty Dynamics in South Wollo, Ethiopia,” Journal of Development Studies 42 (2), pp. 200-225. Reprinted in: Christopher B. Barrett, Michael R. Carter, and Peter D. Little (eds.), Understanding and Reducing Persistent Poverty in Africa. New York: Routledge, 2008. pp. 34-59.

2005    A. Peter Castro, “Developing Local Capacity for Management of Natural Resource Conflicts in Africa: A Review of Key Issues, Approaches, and Outcomes.” Report            prepared for the Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource Management-Collaborative Research Support Program, University of Georgia, 47 pp. Available online at: http://rmportal.net/library/content/frame/developing-local-capacity-for-management-of-natural-resource-conflicts-in-africa-a-review-of-key-issues-approaches-and-outcomes

2005   A. Peter Castro, Review of Somalia: Economy without State, by Peter D. Little. Oxford: James Currey, Indiana University Press, Hargeisa: Btec Books, 2003. American Ethnologist, 32 (1), February, pp. 1015-1016.

2003    A. Peter Castro and Erik Nielsen (editors) Natural Resource Conflict Management Case Studies: An Analysis of Power, Participation and Protected Areas. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 284 pp. Available online at: http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/005/Y4503E/Y4503E00.HTM

2003  A. Peter Castro and Erik Nielsen, “Overview,” in Natural Resource Conflict Management Case Studies: An Analysis of Power, Participation and Protected Areas, edited by A. Peter Castro and Erik Nielsen. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, pp. 1-17. Available online at: ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/005/y4503e/y4503e00.pdf

2003  A. Peter Castro, Review of Indians, Markets and Rainforests, by Ricardo A. Godoy, American Anthropologist 105 (1), pp. 187-189.

2003  A. Peter Castro, Reviews of Maintaining Biodiversity in Forest Ecosystems, edited by Malcolm L. Hunter, and The Social Life of Trees, edited by Laura Rival, Human Ecology 31, (1), pp. 167-173.

2002  A. Peter Castro. "Vulnerability, Livelihoods and Trees Outside Forests,” in Proceedings: Expert Consultation on Enhancing the Contribution of Trees Outside Forests to Sustainable Livelihoods, edited by Syaka Sadio, Christoph Kleinn, and Tage Michaelsen. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, pp. 29-37.

2002    Alfonso Peter Castro, “Social Capital, Assets and Responses to Drought: Preliminary Observations from Interviews in Oromiya and South Wello Zones, Amhara Region, Ethiopia” Madison and Addis Ababa: BASIS Greater Horn of Africa Program and the        Institute for Development Research, Addis Ababa University, 29 pp. Available online at: http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNACQ893.pdf

2002   Edited “Section 8: Case Studies” in Community-Based Forest Resource Conflict Management: A Training Package, Volume 1, by Katherine Means, Cynthia Josayma, Erik Nielsen and Vitoon Viriyasakultorn. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, pp. 277-321 (also supplied editorial support for all of Volume 1 and for Volume 2, see 'Acknowledgements' (p. 3); reissued on the CD-Rom, People and Forests: FAO Participatory Forestry Publications. Rome, Italy: FAO, 2004. Online at:                    ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/005/y4300e/y4300e11.pdf

2001  A. Peter Castro and Adelle Tibbetts, "Sacred Landscapes of Kirinyaga: Indigenous and Early Islamic and Christian Influences," in Sacred Landscapes and Cultural Politics, edited by Philip Arnold and Ann Grodzins Gold. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, pp. 55-81. Reprinted in Religion and the Environment: Critical Concepts in Religious Studies, Vol. 3, edited by Roger Gottleib. London: Routledge, 2010.

2001  Alfonso Peter Castro and Erik Nielsen, “Indigenous People and Co-Management: Implications for Conflict Management,” Environmental Science and Policy 4 (4-5), pp. 229-239. Reprinted by the Vietnam Anthropology Review (in Vietnamese), No. 6 - 2011 and No.1 - 2012.

2000  Violet Matiru with Nancy Hart and Peter Castro (editors), Conflict and Natural Resource Management. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 20 pp. (in Arabic, Chinese, Spanish, and French translations). Available online at:
http://www.fao.org/forestry/21572-0d9d4b43a56ac49880557f4ebaa3534e3.pdf

1999  Alfonso Peter Castro, Yared Amare, Yigremew Adal, and Degafa Tolossa, “Community Assessments: Kebele Profiles, Parts I, II, III and IV,” Madison: BASIS Greater Horn of Africa Program and the Institute for Development Research, Addis Ababa University, 175 pp. Available online at:
http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNACL393.pdf

1999 Alfonso Peter Castro, “Rapid Community Assessment Field Test, South Wello, Ethiopia.” Madison: BASIS Greater Horn of Africa Program and the Institute for Development Research, Addis Ababa University, 72 pp. Available online at:
http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNACL389.pdf

1998  Alfonso Peter Castro (editor), Special Section on "Historical Consciousness and Development Planning," World Development 26 (9), pp. 1695-1784.

1998  Alfonso Peter Castro "Editor's Introduction [to the Special Section on 'Historical Consciousness and Development Planning]" World Development 26 (9), pp. 1695-1696.

1998  Alfonso Peter Castro, "Sustainable Agriculture or Sustained Error? The Case of Cotton in Kirinyaga, Kenya," World Development 26 (9), pp. 1719-1731.

1998  Alfonso Peter Castro, "Integrating Conflict Management into Forestry Policy: An Applied Anthropologist's Perspective," in Integrating Conflict Management Considerations into National Policy Frameworks. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Community Forestry Unit, Forests, Trees and People Programme, pp. 195-208; Available online at: http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/005/X9610E/X9610E00.HTM

1997  Alfonso Peter Castro and Kreg Ettenger, "Indigenous Knowledge and Conflict Management: Exploring Local Perspectives and Mechanisms for Dealing with Community Forestry Disputes," in Volume 1: Compilation of Discussion Papers Made to the Electronic Conference on “Addressing Natural Resource Conflicts through Community Forestry.” Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, pp. 141-164; Available online at:
http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/005/AC696E/AC696E09.htm

1997  Alfonso Peter Castro, "Social and Anti-Social Forestry: Lessons from Bangladesh," Development Anthropologist 15 (1-2), pp.1, 3-12.

1996  Alfonso Peter Castro, “Contracts, Cooperatives, and Coercion: The Kerugoya and Karatina Dried Vegetable Project, 1940-1947” African Rural and Urban Studies 3 (3), pp. 101-136 (issued in 1999).

1996  Alfonso Peter Castro, "The Political Economy of Farm Forestry in Colonial Kenya: The View from Kirinyaga," in Tropical Deforestation: The Human Dimension, edited by Leslie Sponsel, Thomas Headland, and Robert Bailey. New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 122-143.

1995  Alfonso Peter Castro, "Coffee, Tea, or Bureaucracy? Two Commodity Case Studies from Kirinyaga, Kenya, 1951 to 1983," in Research in Economic Anthropology 16, edited by Barry Isaac. Greenwich: JAI Press, pp. 349-395.

1995   Alfonso Peter Castro, Facing Kirinyaga: A Social History of Forest Commons in Southern Mount Kenya. London: Practical Action (Originally known as Intermediate Technology Publications, Studies in Indigenous Knowledge and Development Series, 166 pp. Reprinted in 2005.

1994   Alfonso Peter Castro and Kreg Ettenger, "Counterinsurgency and Socioeconomic Change: The Mau Mau War in Kirinyaga, Kenya,” Research in Economic Anthropology 15, edited by Barry Isaac. Greenwich: JAI Press, pp. 63-101.

1994   Alfonso Peter Castro, "Commentary: Eliminating Hunger in Africa," in Eliminating Hunger in Africa: Technical and Human Perspectives, edited by Daniel A. Griffith and James L. Newman. Syracuse: Syracuse University, Maxwell School, Africa Series, pp. 81-87.

1994   Alfonso Peter Castro, "Cousins and Gunmen: Crisis and Resilience in Somalia," The World and I  9 (3), pp. 268-279.

1994   Alfonso Peter Castro, "East Africa's Perilous Journey,"  The World and I  9 (1), pp. 68-75.

1993   Alfonso Peter Castro, "Kikuyu Agroforestry: An Historical Analysis," Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 46 (1), pp. 45-54. Reprinted in Agriculture and the Environment, edited by C. A. Edwards, M. K. Wali, D. J. Horn, and F. Miller. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1993, pp. 45-54.

1992   Alfonso Peter Castro, "Social Forestry: A Cross-Cultural Analysis," in Environmental Rehabilitation, Volume 1: Policy Issues, edited by Mohan K. Wali. The Hague, The Netherlands: SPB Academic Publishing, pp. 63-78.

1992   Alfonso Peter Castro, Karar Mahmudul Hassan, Ken MacDicken, and Robin Levingston "Final Report of the Mid-Term Evaluation of the Upazila Afforestation and Nursery Development Project," Report for the United Nations Development Programme, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 70 pp.

1991   Alfonso Peter Castro, "Indigenous Kikuyu Agroforestry: A Case Study of Kirinyaga, Kenya," Human Ecology 19 (1), pp. 1-18.

1991   Alfonso Peter Castro, "The Southern Mount Kenya Forest since Independence: A Social Analysis of Resource Competition," World Development 19 (12), pp. 1695-1704.

1991   Alfonso Peter Castro, "Njukiine Forest: Transformation of a Common Property Resource," Forest and Conservation History 35 (4), pp. 160-168.

1990   Peter Castro, "Sacred Groves and Social Change in Kirinyaga, Kenya," in Social Change and Applied Anthropology, edited by Miriam S. Chaiken and Anne K. Fleuret. Boulder: Westview Press, pp. 277-290.

1989   Alfonso Peter Castro, "Social Science Support for Community Forestry: An Introductory Guide," Report prepared for the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, 87 pp.

1989    Jean-Jacques Deschamps, Peg Clement, Dick Howes, Peter Castro, and Michael Caughlin "Impact Evaluation: Kenya Agricultural Sector Loan Project," Washington, D. C.: Development Alternatives, Inc. and the Institute for Development Anthropology, for the United States Agency for International Development, 91 pp. Available online at:
http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PDABC296.pdf

1988   Alfonso Peter Castro, "Southern Mount Kenya and Colonial Forest Conflicts," in World Deforestation in the Twentieth Century, edited by John F. Richards and Richard P. Tucker. Durham: Duke University Press, pp. 33-55, 266-271.

1988   A. H. P. Castro and D. Brokensha, "Institutions and Food Security: Implications for Forestry Development." Paper prepared for the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Expert Consultation on Forestry and Food Production/Security, Bangalore (India), 14-20 Feb 1988, 39 pp.

1988   A. H. P. Castro and D. Brokensha, "Landholding Systems and Agrarian Change." Paper prepared for the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Expert Consultation on Forestry and Food Production/Security, Bangalore (India), 14-20 Feb 1988, 35 pp.

1988   D. Brokensha and A. H. P. Castro, "Common Property Resources," Paper prepared for the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Expert Consultation on Forestry and Food Production/Security, Bangalore (India), 14-20 Feb 1988, 31 pp.

1986    Editor of "Wood Energy Consumption and Resource Survey, Zambia: Technical Findings and Conclusions." Ndola (Zambia): Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Report No: FAO-FO--ZAM/82/E08,53 pp. (Based on the work of M. de Backer, P. Castro, M.  Chaganka, E.H. El Mazzoudi, M. Gane, D. Rodriguez-Bejarano).

1984    David Brokensha and A. H. Peter Castro, "Fuelwood, Agro-Forestry, and Natural Resource Management." Binghamton: Institute for Development Anthropology, for the United States Agency for International Development, 64 pp. Available online at:
http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNAAQ619.pdf

1983    David Brokensha and Alfonso Peter Castro (editors), Wood Fuel Surveys. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 202 pp. (available in Spanish and French translations). Available online at: http://www.fao.org/docrep/Q1085E/Q1085E00.htm    and
 http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/libraries/forestry-grey-literature/wood-fuel.pdf

1983   David Brokensha and Alfonso Peter Castro, "Methods of Fact Finding" and "What Sort of Information," in Wood Fuel Surveys, edited by David Brokensha and Alfonso Peter Castro. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, pp. 75-114. Available online at: http://www.fao.org/docrep/Q1085E/q1085e07.htm#4.%20methods%20of%20fact%20finding

1983    David Brokensha, Bernard Riley, and Alfonso Peter Castro, "Fuelwood Use in Rural Kenya," Binghamton: Institute for Development Anthropology, for the United States Agency for International Development, 54 pp. Available online at:
http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNAAR294.pdf

1983    Alfonso Peter Castro, "Household Energy Use and Tree Planting in Kirinyaga," Nairobi: University of Nairobi, Institute for Development Studies, Working Paper No. 397, 40 pp.

1981  Alfonso Peter Castro, N. Thomas Hakansson and David Brokensha, "Indicators of Rural Inequality," World Development 9 (5), pp. 401-427.

1980    Dennis Wood, David Brokensha, Matthew Gamser, Beth Jackson, Bernard Riley, Alfonso Peter Castro, and Doris Schraft, The Socio-Economic Context of Fuel Use in Small Rural Communities. Washington, D.C.: United States Agency for International Development, Evaluation Special Study No. 1, 293 pp. Available online at:
http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNAAP158.pdf