Funded Research Projects

CPR's raison d'être is to help faculty accomplish their research goals with as much internal support and as little external interference as is consistent with its position in our student-centered research institution. Because good research in applied public policy needs time and money, one of CPR's main goals is to raise enough external funding to meet faculty needs for time away from the classroom, computing and copying, mail, and other dissemination vehicles. External research support also contributes significantly to the size and quality of the graduate programs in economics, public administration and international affairs, and sociology by providing monetary support of graduate students.

Alfonso Flores-Lagunes


Alfonso Flores-Lagunes 

Professor, Economics 
Melvin A. Eggers Economics Faculty Scholar


Title: “Genes, Education, and Gene-Education Interactions in Obesity and Mental Health” 
Role: Co-Principal Investigator 
Collaborators: Vikesh Amin (Central Michigan University), Carlos A. Flores (California Polytechnic State University-San Luis Obispo), and Jere Behrman, and H-P Kohler (University of Pennsylvania)
Funding Source: National Institute of Health
Abstract: This 3-year project will apply econometric methods, instrumental variables and within-sibling comparisons, that use quasi-experimental variation in educational attainment to increase their understanding of causal relations of education, genes, and GxE interactions on obesity and depression. The specific aims are to estimate main effects of education, genetic risk, and GxE interactions on obesity and depression using (i) the Easter School Leaving Rule as a natural experiment in the UK and data from the UK Biobank, (ii) local factors in the individual’s county of residence near secondary school completion age (college availability, education expenditures, unemployment rate) as instruments for education in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) datasets, and (iii) the sibling fixed-effects approach in the Add Health dataset. Overall, the project will provide a comprehensive array of results and new insights as they compare results from different methods, datasets, across different educational levels, and by gender.

Title:
“Work Transitions in a Dynamic Labor Market”
Role: Co-Principle Investigator
Collaborators: Collaborative effort with the iSchool at Syracuse University and Martha A. Garcia-Murillo
Funding Source: Collaboration for Unprecedented Success and Excellence (CUSE) Grant Program
Abstract: This project will analyze the manner in which high and low skilled workers transition from one employment status to another, and how they decide among alternative jobs. The researchers will explore the personal, infrastructure and policy challenges, the opportunities they face when making these decisions, as well as the employment alternatives that contribute to the transition process.

Title: “Preparing for a Post-Work Future?”
Role: Co-Principal Investigator
Collaborators: Collaborative effort with the iSchool at Syracuse University and Martha A. Garcia-Murillo
Funding Source: Collaboration for Unprecedented Success and Excellence (CUSE) Grant Program
Abstract: The goal of this project is to rethink the meaning of work and the manner in which companies, society, and government will need to change to accommodate a world where the substitution from machines puts increasing pressure on wages.


Sarah Hamersma


Sarah Hamersma

Associate Professor, Public Administration and International Affairs




Title: “Keeping the 'Great Equalizer' Fed: SNAP Access and Young Adults’ Educational Engagement”
Role: Principle Investigator
Collaborators: Matthew Kim (University of St. Thomas, Minnesota) and Rhea Acuna (Syracuse University)
Funding Source: William T. Grant Foundation
Abstract: This study examines the effect of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program
(SNAP) on post-secondary educational investments. First, the researchers will estimate this
effect using regression analysis with a rich, nationally-representative longitudinal
survey. Next, the researchers will generate estimates using shorter panel and cross-sectional
surveys merged with administrative SNAP records for 7 states, allowing the researchers to
correct for substantial SNAP under-reporting. The researchers identify causal effects using
variation in work requirements across year and county that affect young adults’
SNAP access. The findings will help establish whether lifting restrictions on SNAP
for young adults could reduce economic inequality by inducing convergence in educational investment.

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Madonna Harrington Meyer
 

University Professor, Sociology
Laura J. and L. Douglas Meredith Professor for Teaching Excellence



Title: "Hunger SNAPS: Food Insecurity Among Older Adults"
Role: Principle Investigator
Collaborators: Colleen Heflin (Syracuse University)
Funding Source: Russell Sage Foundation
Abstract: This project will analyze the social, political, and economic mechanisms that shape food insecurity, describe the formal and informal coping strategies used by the food insecure, and document the consequences of food insecurity for physical, emotional, and family well-being, and the policy changes that would likely reduce food insecurity in older adults.

Colleen Heflin
Colleen Heflin 

Professor, Public Administration and International Affairs



Title: “Food Insecurity and Chronic Diseases in Low-Income Older Americans: The Role of SNAP Receipt in Medication Underuse”
Role: Co-Principle Investigator
Collaborators: Irma Artega (University of Missouri-Columbia), Leslie Hodges (University of Wisconsin-Madison) and Chinedum Ojinnaka (Arizona State University) 
Funding Source: University of Kentucky Center for Poverty Research
Abstract: This project will investigate how SNAP benefits affect medication and health care use for seniors with chronic conditions, using a unique linked state administrative dataset from Missouri that contains both the universe of Medicaid claims and SNAP data among adults ages 60 and older from 2006 to 2014.


Title: “Changing patterns of eligibility and take up in SNAP and the role of out of pocket medical expenses (OOPM)”
Role: Principle Investigator
Funding Source: University of Kentucky Center for Poverty Research
Abstract: Using a long panel of seniors from the Health and Retirement Study, the first objective of this project is to explore the temporal dimension of SNAP eligibility and take-up for older adults and their policy implications. Researchers will focus on the age pattern of SNAP eligibility and take-up, the period pattern of individuals’ SNAP eligibility and take-up within economic and policy contexts, and the demographic pattern of how the age and period patterns differ by demographic characteristics. The second objective is to examine the role of out-of-pocket medical expenditures on SNAP participation. Given the increase in out of pocket medical expenses for older adults, the authors will ask whether these expenses increase eligibility but not participation, or whether participation also increases.

Title: "Hunger SNAPS: Food Insecurity Among Older Adults"
Role: Principle Investigator
Collaborators: Madonna Harrington Meyer (Syracuse University)
Funding Source: Russell Sage Foundation
Abstract: This project proposes a mixed-methods study that will advance understanding of the contours of food insecurity among households with older adults in the U.S. context. The study will analyze the social, political, and economic mechanisms that shape food insecurity, describe the formal and informal coping strategies used by the food insecure, and document the consequences of food insecurity for physical, emotional, and family well-being, and the policy changes that would likely reduce food insecurity in older adults. The quantitative portion of the larger study will use large scale, nationally representative survey data from a variety of sources to document trends, patterns, and correlates of food insecurity that emerge from the qualitative study.

Title: "Employment Instability As a Barrier to Childcare"
Role: Principle Investigator
Collaborators: Taryn Morrissey
Funding Source: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
Abstract: This project will advance understanding of the barriers to accessing and maintaining Early Care and Education (ECE), defined as non-parental center-based and home-based early education and care settings. The objective is to provide a better understanding of the interplay between parental employment, childcare subsidy receipt, and ECE use among low-income workers, using unique administrative datasets from a large and diverse state. Findings will shed light on points of intervention in how child care subsidy programs and low-wage employment, to better promote access to and the stability of ECE to reduce socioeconomic achievement and health disparities.

Title: “Creating Evidence-Based Strategies to Address Administrative Churn in SNAP”
Role: Principle Investigator
Collaborators: Len Lopoo and the Maxwell X Lab (Syracuse University)
Funding Source: Unites States Department of Agriculture
Abstract: This project is part of a larger project being conducted through a partnership between the Maxwell X Lab at Syracuse University and Hennepin County’s (MN) Human Services and Public Health Department. Together, the team will work to help redesign the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) recertification process in MN and is that uses randomized control trials (RCTs) and cost benefit analysis to create an evidence-base for how to reduce administrative churn in the SNAP caseload cost-effectively in Hennepin County, MN. Heflin and her team will use econometric analysis to explore the applicability and effectiveness of traditional and more behavioral-based nudges to reduce churn. In addition, to assess the broad applicability of their findings, they will use Economic Research Service (ERS) administrative data to examine whether the factors identified as influencing churn are similar in other states.

Title: "Snap Uptake and School Readiness in Virginia"
Role: Principle Investigator
Collaborators: Michah W. Rothbart (Syracuse University)
Funding Source: Funded by United States Department of Agriculture
Abstract: This project will utilize advanced econometric techniques to evaluate the relationship between participation in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and school readiness. In support of this project, the researchers will also examine the various factors that may affect whether or not eligible households choose to participate in SNAP. The results will help the United States Department of Agriculture understand both the effectiveness and efficiency of the SNAP program. 


Yilin Hou


Yilin Hou 

Professor, Public Administration and International Affairs
Tenth Decade Faculty Scholar


Title:
“Improving Local Property Tax Administration in New York State”
Role: Principal Investigator
Collaborators: John Yinger, Michael Wasylenko, and Minch Lewis (Syracuse University)
Funding Source: Collaboration for Unprecedented Success and Excellence (CUSE) Grant Program
Abstract: This project aims to address problems such as long overdue reassessments of property values, fragmentation of tax assessing units, rampant (excessive) exemptions of properties from the tax base, and meddling (weakening) of local tax base by the State General Assembly. The project will accomplish these goals by improving property tax administration in the State of New York. Researchers will develop theoretical models and conduct elaborate empirical analyses to generate evidence in the era of the new tax reform.

Title: "International Comparative Study Conference on the Administration of the Real Property Tax: Generating Lessons for Reform and Improvement"
Role: Principle Investigator
Funding Source: Collaboration for Unprecedented Success and Excellence (CUSE) Grant Program
Abstract: Long-term goals of the seminar are two-fold. The first is to gather insight and scholarship through international studies of country contexts, with threads to the U.S. so researches can distill lessons to help reform tax administration in general and the administration of local property tax in New York in particular. The second is to help further solidify the reputation of the Maxwell School as a stronghold in state and local public finance and as a hub for scholarship in property taxation. On the technical side, the long-term goal is to improve the administration of the local property tax in New York State by addressing problems identified above.

yoonseokLee_


Yoonseok Lee
 

Associate Professor, Economics
Melvin A. Eggers Economics Faculty Scholar


Title: "Nonparametric Sample Splitting"
Role: Principle Investigator
Funding Source: Collaboration for Unprecedented Success and Excellence (CUSE) Grant Program
Abstract: This project develops novel approaches to analyze sample splitting over a random field in the threshold regression framework. The threshold or the cutoff is determined by an unknown relation among multiple variables, which is identified and estimated nonparametrically (i.e., without assuming some specific models). Furthermore, the observations are allowed to be cross-sectionally dependent and hence this new method can be applied to study group formation among interacting agents or unknown borders over a geographical space that result in social segregation and groups. The key analytical model is also extended to develop estimation of sample-splitting contours and statistical tests on sample splitting. The outcome of this project has high applicability in studies on sample splitting and heterogeneous policy effects, including: economics, political science, sociology, and marketing science, where the agent/group-specific heterogeneity and social/political/market segregation is important; biomedical science, immunology, environmental science, and urban studies, where the identification of unobserved/unknown boundaries is of interest.

Katherine Michelmore
Katherine Michelmore

Assistant Professor, Public Administration and International Affairs



Title:
"HAIL Scholars: Increasing Economic Diversity at a Flagship University"
Role: Principle Investigator
Collaborators: Susan Dynarski (University of Michigan)
Funding Source: Smith Richardson Foundation
Abstract: This project addresses the concern that low-income, high-achieving students enroll and graduate from highly selective institutions at far lower rates than high-income students by evaluating a randomized controlled trial the researchers designed to increase the college enrollment and completion rates of low-income students at the University of Michigan. The intervention, known as the HAIL scholarship, targeted low-income, high-achieving students in Michigan, as well as their parents and their principals.

Title: "What Kind of Jobs? The Effect of the Earned Income Tax Credit on Job Quality"
Role: Principle Investigator
Collaborators: Natasha Pilkauskas
Funding Source: Russell Sage Foundation
Abstract: This project will analyze how expansions to the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC)  over time have affected the job quality of single mothers, including occupation, work schedules (types of non-standard shifts, multiple job holding, overtime hours), stability of hours and employment, access to fringe benefits, and longer-term wage growth and job tenure.

Shannon Monnat
Shannon Monnat 

Associate Professor, Sociology
Lerner Chair for Public Health Promotion
Co-Director of the Policy, Place, and Population Health Lab, Aging Studies Institute


Title: "Implementing and Evaluating the Efficacy of a New Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Plan of Safe Care"
Role: Principle Investigator
Collaborators: Alexandra Punch (Lerner Center at Syracuse University)
Funding Source: Mother Cabrini Health Foundation
Abstract: This project aims to increase health provider education surrounding the successful development of Plans of Safe Care (POSC) for mothers with addiction and babies who were exposed to opioids prior to birth. The project has two components: 1) Develop and provide educational workshops that will target healthcare providers most likely to work with mothers in need of developing a plan of safe care, including clinicians, therapists/counselors, social workers, community health works, and addiction treatment specialists. The workshops will educate these individuals on the legal mandates of POSC, how to appropriately and thoroughly develop a plan, and guide them toward referrals sources, and 2) collect hospital level data related to the implementation of POSC and analyze the fidelity with which they are being completed. This will allow partner agencies and hospitals across Onondaga County and New York State to develop policies and practices that best meet the needs of women, babies, and their families.


Title: "New York Opioid Court Treatment Enhancement Project"
Role: Principle Investigator
Collaborators: Alexandra Punch (Lerner Center at Syracuse University)
Funding Source: Research Foundation for Mental Hygiene, Inc.
Abstract: The New York Opioid Court Treatment Enhancement Project will enhance and evaluate substance abuse treatment and recovery support service systems treating individuals with opioid use disorders (OUDs) participating in ten geographically diverse Opioid Courts in the State of New York. The aim is to expand treatment and recovery supportive services to individuals with OUDs in Opioid Courts the moment they enter the criminal justice system. The project seeks to provide a full continuum of specialized services to Opioid Court participants and to evaluate best practices for serving this population. The researchers will develop and implement a comprehensive plan to reduce the risk of overdose death and to provide enhanced treatment and recovery service engagement in the pretrial OUD population. This project includes partnerships with the New York State Office of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse (OASAS) New York State Unified Court System (UCS) and the Center for Court Innovation. The Lerner Center and Maxwell X-Lab will serve as the research partners for this project to enhance and to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment and recovery supportive services designed specifically for Opioid Court participants.

Title: "Network on Life Course Health Dynamics and Disparities in 21st Century America"
Role: Principle Investigator
Collaborators: Jennifer Karas Montez (Syracuse University)
Funding Source: National Institute on Aging 
Abstract: The purpose of this network is to stimulate research, disseminate data and analytic resources, and create a better understanding of trends and disparities in U.S. adult health — specifically, longevity across the life course and across different geographic contexts.

Title: "Interdisciplinary Network on Rural Population Health and Aging"
Role: Principle Investigator
Collaborators: Leif Jensen, Martin Sliwinski, Lori Hunter, and John Green
Funding Source: National Institute of Aging
Abstract: This network will seek a better understanding of rural health and aging trends and the factors affecting and being affected by these trends. It will bring together a multidisciplinary group of scientists to study and identify gaps, stimulate new research, and develop and disseminate training materials and analytic resources on rural population health and aging.

Title: “Local Initiatives, State Preemption, and Public Health
Role: Co-Principal Investigator
Collaborators: Doug Wolf and Jennifer Karas Montez
Funding Source: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.
Abstract: The project seeks to answer the following questions: (1) What factors best indicate opioid risk in rural places? (2) What responses are rural communities and their police making to the opioid epidemic, especially for police intelligence and information gathering? (3) What intelligence-centered approach do rural police departments find most useful and how do they respond when primed to initiate one with a small investment of resources? (4) What benefit is yielded with new initiatives in opioid response and drug intelligence for rural police? Where should taxpayers invest resources for maximal outcomes?

Title: “Building Drug Intelligence Networks to Combat the Opioid Crisis in Rural Communities: A Collaborative Intelligence-led Policing Strategy”
Role: Co-Investigator
Collaborators: Andrew Hochstetler, David Peters, Jeff Bouffard, Kyle Burgason, and Glenn Sterner
Funding Source: National Institute of Justice
Abstract: The project seeks to answer the following questions: (1) What factors best indicate opioid risk in rural places? (2) What responses are rural communities and their police making to the opioid epidemic, especially for police intelligence and information gathering? (3) What intelligence-centered approach do rural police departments find most useful and how do they respond when primed to initiate one with a small investment of resources? (4) What benefit is yielded with new initiatives in opioid response and drug intelligence for rural police? Where should taxpayers invest resources for maximal outcomes? 

Title: "Understanding Opioid Risks in Rural and Micropolitan Communities: Economic Restructuring and Social Responses"
Role: Co-Principal Investigator
Collaborators: David Peters, Andrew Hochestetler, Eric Rozier, and Mark Berg
Funding Source: National Institute of Food and Agriculture in the United States Department of Agriculture and Iowa State University
Abstract: The goal of this integrated research-extension project is to identify and disseminate effective place-based strategies that reduce opioid risks and hazards in rural and micropolitan communities experiencing social disorganization due to economic restructuring. 

Title: "Identifying and Informing Strategies for Disrupting Drug Distribution Networks: An Application to Opiate Flows in Pennsylvania"
Role: Co-Principal Investigator
Collaborators: Glenn Sterner and Ashton Verdery
Funding Source: National Institute of Justice/Penn State University
Abstract: This study will provide recommendations to law enforcement agencies on how to maximize the efficiency for disruption of the supply of opiates into communities and develop a model for use in other jurisdictions from results of the study. The results will be provided to the Pennsylvania State Police, Pennsylvania state governmental agencies, U.S. governmental agencies, law enforcement agencies across the United States, the academic community, law practitioners, and local community organizations.

DavidPopp
David Popp
 

Professor, Public Administration and International Affairs
Caroline Rapking Faculty Scholar in Public Administration and Policy


Title: "Does Government Funding Change What You Do? The Effects of Funding on the Direction and Impact of Academic Energy Research"
Role: Principle Investigator
Collaborators: Daniel Acuna (Syracuse University)
Funding Source: Sloan Foundation
Abstract: In this project, an interdisciplinary team of researchers will examine how government funding influences clean energy research.  We use machine learning analysis of published papers to track changes in research portfolios and measure novelty. We will use the resulting data set to answer three questions: (1) Do scientists change the focus of their research in response to targeted government funding opportunities?  (2) If so, what types of calls for funding best attract new researchers?  (3) Do researchers new to a field contribute novel ideas?  Do they produce more highly cited research?



Rebecca (Becky) Schewe
Rebecca Schewe
 

Associate Professor, Sociology
O'Hanley Faculty Scholar 



Title: “Mixed Methods Grant Obtaining Operational Development (MMGOOD)"
Role: Co-Principle Investigator
Collaborators: Jason Wiles
Funding Source: Collaboration for Unprecedented Success and Excellence (CUSE) Grant Program
Abstract: This research project will be among the first in biology education research to focus on qualitative studies of URM populations. Researchers will leverage the findings from this project to apply for more grant funding that supports minority students (like our current SUSTAIN grant) and enhance URM student performance in science courses and retention in STEM majors.

Title: “Linking Human Behavior and Hydrological Processes Towards Improved Understanding Of Spatio-Temporal CEC Prevalence Across Agroecosystems"
Role: Co-Principle Investigator
Collaborators: Christa Kelleher (Syracuse University) and Teng Zeng (Syracuse University)
Funding Source: National Institute of Food and Agriculture in the United States Department of Agriculture
Abstract: The objective of this project is to link human behavior, hydrological processes, and the occurrence of Chemicals of Emerging Concern (CECs) in New York waterways downstream of agricultural systems

Amy Ellen Schwartz
Amy Ellen Schwartz 

Professor, Economics and Public Administration and International Affairs
Daniel Patrick Moynihan Chair in Public Affairs


Title: "School Choice Policy Research Center: A National Research Partnership to Improve School Choice for Disadvantaged Students"
Role: Principle Investigator
Collaborators: Team at the National Center for Research on Education Access and Choice (REACH)
Funding Source: Institute of Education Sciences/Tulane University
Abstract: Researchers will focus on how school choice is working for minority, low-income, English-language learner and special education students, as well as other disadvantaged students. REACH will track student outcomes and other metrics in essentially every school and every state to assess how different approaches to school choice, such as voucher programs and charter schools, can better serve disadvantaged students.  


Title: "Between Home and School: The School Bus and Student Outcomes”
Role: Principle Investigator
Funding Source: Institute of Education Sciences 
Abstract: The purpose of this project is to explore how an often overlooked school context, the school bus, is related to differences in student characteristics and academic outcomes, and examine the extent to which this relationship might differ for poor and minority students. Schwartz will make use of a new data source –longitudinal pupil transportation records and longitudinal student records to provide descriptive evidence on who rides the bus, how bus services differ across students and schools, and the potential link between bus services and student outcomes.

Title: “The Impact of the Built Environment on Child BMI”
Role: Principle Investigator
Collaborators: Brian Elbel
Funding Source: New York University
Abstract: These researchers will work with IESP at New York University to analyze existing administrative and survey data from New York City public schools to address the gap in knowledge regarding the impact of the home and school built environment.

Ying Shi 
Ying Shi

Assistant Professor, Public Administration and International Affairs



Title: "Examining Underrepresented Students’ Access to and Gains from Selective Public High School Education"
Role: Principal Investigator
Collaborators: John Singleton (University of Rochester)
Funding Source: Russell Sage Foundation and Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Pipeline Grants Competition
Abstract: This project will evaluate the long-term causal effects of selective public high schools (SPHS) admissions with a focus on underrepresented populations, and examine how contextual factors such as sending school attributes and information from peers on SPHS admissions and benefits may affect the application pipeline of underrepresented students. Ying and John will build a research partnership involving a SPHS and administrative data center to link a decade of SPHS applicant data with statewide records that will permit them to apply rigorous empirical methods to evaluate long-term outcomes such as, college completion and examine the policy-relevant factors contributing to the underrepresentation of certain groups at SPHS.


Saba Siddiki


Saba Siddiki
 

Associate Professor, Public Administration and International Affairs



Title:
“A Research Coordination Network Dedicated to Coordinating and Advancing Analytical Approaches for Policy Design”
Role: Principal Investigator
Collaborators: Edella Schlager, Charlie Schweik, Seth Frey, Doug Rice, Chris Weible, Tanya Heikkila, and Brenda Bushouse
Funding Source: National Science Foundation
Abstract: The funded research coordination network (RCN) will foster collaboration and intellectual exchange toward (i) the development of generalizable and reliable approaches for studying the design of public policy; (ii) the identification of theoretically motivated criteria for contextualizing policy design assessments; and (iii) the generation of guidance on how to apply computational and other methods for assessing policy design and studying simulated and actual behavioral responses to policy design. The RCN will focus particularly on theoretically and methodologically developing an increasingly popular approach for studying the language of public policy, called the Institutional Grammar.


Perry Singleton


Perry Singleton

Associate Professor, Economics



Title: “The Effect of Social Security Retirement Benefits on Food-Related Hardship among Older Americans”
Role: Principle Investigator
Funding Source: University of Kentucky Center for Poverty Research
Abstract: This project addresses several issues related to benefit eligibility and food-related hardship. First, it examines whether the prevalence of food-related hardship decreases precipitously at age 62, when many individuals become eligible for and claim retirement benefits. Second, it examines whether the persistent of food-related hardship increases at age 62, since Social Security income is more stable. Third, it examines whether the effect of Social Security benefits on food-related hardship was larger during the Great Recession, which sharply increased food insecurity among the working-age population.


Pete Wilcoxen
Pete Wilcoxen

Professor, Public Administration and International Affairs
Ajello Professor in Energy and Environmental Policy
Laura J. and L. Douglas Meredith Professor for Teaching Excellence
Director, Center for Environmental Policy and Administration

Title: “Northeast Residential Energy Use Pilot Study
Role: Principal Investigator
Collaborators: Steve Chapin, Keli Perrin, and Jason Dedrick
Funding Source: Collaboration for Unprecedented Success and Excellence (CUSE) Grant Program
Abstract: This proposal would carry out a pilot study of residential electricity consumption by households in the Northeast and use high resolution metering that enables near real time monitoring of electricity use at the level of individual circuits.
 
Title: "Distributed Energy Markets"
Role: Principle Investigator
Collaborators: Team composed of faculty from the iSchool, the School of Engineering/Computer Science, and the Law School at Syracuse University
Funding Source: National Science Foundation
Abstract: The team will conduct research into various "two-way distributed" energy market designs to assess potential security and privacy risks inherent in each, and the trade-offs between reducing risk and optimizing market performance.